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QP36 .Os4 Making the most of 


Srfi^r^nr^ Stbrarg 























All rights reser-ved 

Copyright, 1915, 

Set up and electrotyped. Published February, 1915. Reprinted 
May, June, 1915. 

NorfaooU Jltfss 

J. S. Gushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 


It is the aim in " The Health Series of Physiology and 
Hygiene " to present in an attractive form for pupils in the 
elementary school the latest and most accurate knowledge 
relating to physiology, and especially to the hygiene of 
daily life. The constant effort of the authors has been to 
make scientific knowledge so simple, so concrete, and so 
captivating that pupils can hardly fail to take an interest 
in the problems of preserving health for the purpose of 
making the most of life. 

Throughout the series, the aim has been kept in view 
of awakening in the young a normal desire to live in 
such a manner as to develop strength and preserve health, 
because in this way the individual will have the greatest 
success in securing the things which he desires, and in 
avoiding the disabilities and pains which otherwise are 
likely to occupy a considerable part of his life. Compara- 
tively little attention is given to anatomy, and only suffi- 
cient physiology is presented to constitute a basis for the 
■facts of health which are discussed. 

Very extensive use is made of photographs and diagrams 
illustrating every-day life in the city and in the country. 
There is at least one interesting and practical original 
exercise suggested for every principle of health presented 


in any lesson, and it is the plan that each pupil should 
work out each exercise and report upon it during the reci- 
tation period. In order further to assist the teacher and 
the pupil, a list of questions, fully covering the text, has 
been given at the end of each chapter. 


There is one word which has come to be used very 
freely by every one to-day — "Efficiency." Men in all 
walks of life are studying the question of avoiding waste 
and making their efforts count for more than they did 
formerly. Suppose a manufacturer has been in business 
for thirty or forty years ; if he should conduct the business 
to-day just as he did when he started it, he would probably 
soon have to abandon it altogether, because he could not 
compete with his rivals who had adopted more efficient 
methods. Now, the human body is a kind of manufac- 
turing concern, only it is a more complicated one than any 
establishment that man can build. Just because it has so 
many parts and is capable of performing such a variety of 
acts, there is likely to be a good deal of waste, and it may 
not be able to produce the right kind and amount of results 
in work or in pleasure. So the chief thing for any person 
to do is to study the question of making his body a smooth- 
running and effective working machine, so that it will always 
be ready for any task or enterprise. Only in this way may 
the most be got out of life. 

This last book in the Health Series shows the relation 
between health and efficiency and discusses all the problems 
that have to be considered in maintaining bodily vigor, 


poise, and resistance to disease and fatigue. The conditions 
of living are not the same to-day as they were one hundred 
years ago ; and if a person desires to get the most out of 
life, he must adapt his habits to the changed conditions. 
If his habits are just the same as those of his great-great- 
grandfather, he will be likely to be handicapped in practically 
all that he wants to do. When he ought to feel fine and 
ready for any task, he may be suffering from aches and 
pains and not have energy enough for the demands that are 
made upon him. Then, too, one must have good appear- 
ance in these times when he has to deal with so many 
people. If he has an ill-formed or badly developed body, 
it will count against him wherever he goes. Further, if he 
imitates some of the people around him who are constantly 
putting into the body things which weaken it and lower its 
efficiency, it will be impossible for him to get out of life 
what nature intended he should. All these matters are 
presented in a concrete way in this book. 

A great many photographs and drawings have been made 
for this book in order to impress health principles. Every 
topic discussed is indicated in a topical heading in the mar- 
gin ; original exercises designed to apply each principle are 
given, and review questions covering each point touched 
upon are added to each chapter. The book is completed 
with a glossary and an index which will save the time of 
both teacher and pupil in looking up any word or subject. 



I. Taking the Measure of a Man , . . . i 

II. The Vital Machinery . 

III. The Value of "a Life . 

IV. The Benefits of Exercise 

V. Training the Muscles for Health and Symmetry -j-] 

VI. Food and Efficiency 

VII. How THE Body is Governed 

VIII. The Mental Faculties . . . . 

IX. Deceiving the Nerves and the Mind 

X. Handicaps in the Race of Life . 

XL The Body-Filters for destroying Poisons 

XII. How THE Body renews Itself 

XIII. Germ Plagues . . . . . . 

XIV. Living Long and Well . . . . 
XV. "Safety First" . . . . . . 

GLOSSARY .....,,. 
INDEX ......„,, 




25 f 




Taking the Measure of a Man 

In taking the measure of a man we will begin with the 
tape measure. The height varies very greatly. The 
average height for man is 68 inches while the The aver- 
average for woman is 64 inches. Great height ^® height, 
is in some cases due to extraordinary length of legs. 
For this reason the sitting height is more important than 
the standing height as a measure of body development. 
Women as a rule have shorter legs than men, and so 
approach nearer the male average in sitting than in 
standing height. 

A prehistoric cemetery discovered in Southern France 
contained bones whose proportions indicated that they 
must have belonged to men at least eight feet high. The 
average height of human beings to-day is doubtless less 
than it was in some former age. 

That the average height is decreasing is shown in 
the fact that the minimum height required for enroll- 
ment in the army has of late been considerably lessened 


in different countries. France has lowered the standard 
three times in fifty years, making a total difference of 
four inches. The English government has been obliged 
to lower the standard as much as six inches in fifty 
years, and the United States Government has also 
recently lowered its standard. 

That there is some advantage in height may be shown 

in the fact that we all 
wish to be tall. A person 
of tall stature has (other 
things being equal) a more 
commanding presence and 
greater physical power. 
Low stature is often a 
handicap in the race of 
life. Nevertheless, some 
of the world's greatest men 
in all lines have been men 
of small stature. Alex- 
ander jhe Great, Napoleon, 
Lord Nelson, Lord Roberts, 
and many more of the 
great military geniuses of 
the world were men of 
It may be that the advan- 
tage is not all on the side of the tall man. Energy, 
alertness, and quickness of thought and action are more 
frequently the qualities of the small man than of the 
man of great stature. 

Taking the measure of a man. 

small or medium stature. 


That systematic physical exercise tends to increase 
the height is shown in the fact that young men who 
enhst in the army sometimes increase several Exercise 
inches in height as a resuh of the military ^'^ height, 
drill. An English trainer reports the case of a young 
man twenty-one years of age who had not grown per- 
ceptibly for two years, but who took a new start and 
grew four inches as the result of systematic exercise 
after entering military service. 

The height depends primarily upon the length of the 
bones. The bones are nourished by the arteries supply- 
ing the overlying muscles. We know that the blood 
supply of an active muscle is several times as great as 
that of an inactive one. (Illustrate this by an experi- 
ment.) The growth of the bones depends much upon 
muscular activity and is likely to be increased by 
vigorous exercise. The time to work for an increase in 
height is while the growing bones still contain more or 
less cartilage. Why ^ After the bones become hard- 
ened, not much change can be made in the height. 
When do they become hardened ^ 

During the years of growth there should be a steady 
increase in height, though the rate of growth varies at 
different ages, and in this respect there is a difference 
between boys and girls. Measurements made of a 
great many thousands of children in different countries 
show that the average height of boys and girls is almost 
the same until about the eleventh year, when the girls 
become taller and keep ahead up to about the sixteenth 


year. Then the boys not only catch up with the girls, 

but even surpass them in height. 

Of more importance than 
height is symmetry, which means 
Symmet- ^ goo^ general develop- 
ricai de- ment of the whole body, 
veiopment. According to Dr. Gio- 
vanni, of Milan, the proper pro- 
portions of the human figure are 
as given in the accompanying 
table. You may use the tape 
line on yourself to see how nearly 
you approach his standard of the 
ideal proportions. In this way 
you may find out what are your 
deficiencies and what parts of 
your body need special develop- 

Symmetry is of greater 
importance than height. 

1. The height of a person is equal to the greatest stretch of the 

arms ; that is, the distance between the tips of the middle 
fingers when they are extended laterally as far as possible. 

2. The circumference of the chest is equal to one half the height. 

3. The length of the sternum or breast bone is equal to one fifth 

of the circumference of the chest. 

Represented in inches, these measurements work 
out as follows for a man and woman who closely ap- 
proach the ideal type, although a particular man or 
woman might vary considerably from these measure- 
ments, and still be normal : 





Extreme stretch of arms 
Circumference of chest . 
Length of sternum . . 
Height of abdomen 
Width of pelvis 



8 inches 
8 inches 
5 inches 

8 inches 

9 inches 
4 inches 

64 inches 
64 inches 
31.8 inches 
6.4 inches 
12 inches 
10. 1 inches 

The waist of the ideal woman is a Uttle larger in pro- 
portion to her height than that of the ideal man. 
According to the famous Venus de Milo, a woman's 
waist measurements should be 47.6 per cent of the 
height. In women, the organs which lie in the waist 
zone, — the liver, stomach, kidneys, spleen, and pan- 
creas, — are normally larger in proportion to the body 
weight than they are in men. This is necessary on 
account of the function of motherhood, when these 
organs have to do work for two. A very small waist is 
an evidence of weakness and usually means internal 

A small person who is well proportioned and well- 
poised has a much better appearance and makes a better 
impression than a tall person who is not well developed 
and has not a good carriage. 

Here is a test you may make as to the habitual atti- 
tude of your body: A plumb line dropped Good poise 
from the tip of your nose should fall one inch ™°^® ™" 
in front of your big toes. Your shoulders and than 
hips should touch a straight vertical line. If stature. 
you fail to come up to this standard, take a look 


at yourself sideways in the glass. It is quite cer- 
tain that you are round-shouldered, your chest caves 
in, and your abdomen sticks out. You need to prac- 
tice exercises for obtaining the correct standing and 
sitting positions until they become habitual. 

It is very important to remember that the position 
habitually taken in standing or 
sitting is a mold into which the 
body grows. A person who sits 
in a drooping attitude becomes 
round-shouldered and flat-chested. 
You know what happens to the 
internal organs of such a person. 
The lungs have not space for 
proper development, and the de- 
pression of the ribs crowds down 
the stomach, liver, and other ab- 
dominal organs, which are not 
sufficiently supported by the re- 
laxed and weakened abdominal 
muscles. The breathing is in- 
efficient, the circulation is inter- 
fered with, the vital organs be- 
come congested with stagnant blood, and various 
disorders are likely to result. 

While we are speaking of symmetry, we may notice 
something which is closely associated with it, — 
The beauty beauty. This is one of the characteristics 
of the body. Qf ^ wcll-ptoportioned, healthy human being. 

Try iHis Tiisr on your 



Human beauty consists in regularity of features, 
clearness of skin, intelligence of expression, symmetry 
of form, and grace of motion. Beauty is more than 
skin deep. Beauty without is born of health within. 
A beautiful skin, without pimples or discolorations or 
eruptions of any kind, de- 
pends upon a healthy condi- 
tion of the blood. A skin 
fed by healthy blood has a 
fineness of texture, a clear- 
ness and cleanness of tint, 
and a glow of life, that are 
always pleasing. 

In the ideal form, the layer 
of fat beneath the skin is just 
sufficient to round out the 
corners and pad out the form 
and features, leaving no un- 
sightly hollows or disfiguring 
lumps of superfluous tissue. 

If the skin were removed, 
it would be seen that nearly 
all the surface of the body 
is composed of muscles. It is readily seen that 
beauty of form, as well as grace of motions, depends 
very much upon the proper development of the 
muscles. Even the regularity of the features de- 
pends to a great degree on the rounded and perfect 
outline of the muscles of the face. And the expres- 

Beauty of form depends very 
much upon the development 
of the muscles. 



sion of the face depends upon the sort of muscles 
that are brought oftenest into action. Those that 
contract oftenest become the strongest, and give the 
index to the face, making it grave or gay, smihng or 
frowning, pleasant or morose. These muscles are 

attached to the skin, 
and they pull the skin 
around in different 
ways to make it con- 
form to the varying 
states of the mind. 
So the face is a mirror 
of the mind, and a 
beautiful expression is 
not possible without 
good, pure, and beau- 
tiful thoughts. 

In measuring our 
man we shall next use 
The weight the scales or 
of the body, weighing ma- 
chine. The weight of 
man varies far more than the height, on which, of 
course, it largely depends. 

History tells us of a Mr. Lambert, of Leicester, Eng- 
land, who "in corporeal greatness had no competitor, 
having reached the enormous weight of 628 pounds." 
Think how heavily handicapped one would be with such 
a load to carry ! 

The beauty of the face depends very 
largely upon the muscles that are 
habitually most active. 


It has been estimated that a perfectly proportioned 
man weighs from two to two and a half pounds for each 
inch of his height. 

The following table gives us the average weight for 
boys and girls of different ages and heights. 








Height in 


Weight in lbs. 






Height in 



Weight in lbs. 




Weigh and measure yourself and your classmates to 
see how closely you all come to these averages. One's 
nationality determines to some extent his height and to 
a less extent his weight. See if you can tell from observ- 
ing the people in yourcommunity whether American men 
and women are taller or shorter, heavier or lighter, than 
people who have recently come from Germany or Italy 
or Ireland or Sweden or England or Russia, and so on. 

The following table shows the relation of height and 
weight at different ages. 



Table of Relation of Height and Weight Compiled from 
Life Insurance Records 

Men — Ages 15 to 24 

Women — Ages 15 to 19 





5 feet inch 

1 inch 

2 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 

7 inches 

8 inches 

9 inches 

10 inches 

11 inches 

6 feet inch 

1 inch 

2 inches 

3 inches 







4 feet II inches 

5 feet inch 

1 inch 

2 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 

7 inches 

8 inches 

9 inches 
10 inches 




The weight, hke the height, should steadily increase 
during the years of growth. These tables show us that 
even after adult life Is reached, there is usually some 
increase of weight with advancing years. 

The chief medical director of one of the largest life 
insurance companies of New York said that, in collect- 
ing statistics of weight, the average weight had been 
taken as the normal standard, so that it seemed natural 
for people to grow more stout as they grew older. 
But when he came to study the death rate, he found that 


the average mortality was lowest among those a little 
below the average weight. This indicates that the 
average weight is not the normal weight, and that 
though the average weight increases with years the 
normal weight does not. That is, for a man of a certain 
height there is a fixed normal weight close to which he 
should keep through life. 

In a healthy person there are usually slight changes 
from time to time in the weight, but any considerable 
deviation from the normal should be given attention. 
A rapid loss in weight may indicate the development of 
tuberculosis or disease of some internal organ. Fever 
causes a rapid loss in weight, as does also any disease 
which interferes with the digestion or assimilation of 

Athletes or others in special training to reduce their 
weight may acquire a very rapid loss without injury. 
Jockeys sometimes lose more than twenty pounds in a 

Loss of sleep will invariably cause loss of weight. 
Stock raisers know that it is no use to try to fatten an 
animal that becomes restless and will not sleep. A 
baby that sleeps most of the time, as a normal infant 
should do, is usually plump, while a restless, crying 
baby is always puny. So a sufficient amount of sleep 
is of great importance during the growing period to 
keep one up to the normal standard of weight. 

On the other hand, a rapid gain in weight above 
the normal also calls for attention. The statistics of 


insurance companies show that persons who are ten 
per cent over weight are on the average shorter Uved 
The evil of than those who are ten per cent under weight, 
too much Very fleshy persons are seldom long lived, 
flesh. When a sheep becomes very fat the butcher 

knows it must be killed or it will decline and die. The 
fat is likely to accumulate not only beneath the skin 
upon the outside of the body, but also upon the inside 
about the internal organs. Then the vital machinery 
becomes clogged, and the action of the lungs, heart, and 
other organs is interfered with. This naturally has the 
effect of lessening the mental energy. That this han- 
dicap may be overcome, however, is shown by the fact 
that some of the most eminent statesmen have been 
men of great bulk. 

It is not the amount but the quality of one's flesh 
that counts. Exercise hardens the muscles, and gives 
firmness and solidity to the body, increasing its specific 
gravity. (What does this mean .?) Athletes and others 
who are physically active weigh more in proportion to 
their size than those whose flesh is soft and flabby from 
lack of exercise. Why, do you think ? 

In ancient Sparta, whose people were a race of war- 
riors, the State required of every citizen a high standard 
of physical efficiency. Among them corpulence was 
treated as a crime. The citizen who grew too fat or too 
soft for military exercise was punished by whipping. 
One offender was brought before the council at a meet- 
ing of the people of Sparta, and his illegal fatness was 


publicly exposed. He was then threatened with per- 
petual banishment if he did not reduce his proportions 
to the Spartan standard. Was this a good plan to 
follow.? Why.? 

The tape measure and the weighing machine do not, 
after all, tell us very much about the man ; they do not 
even tell us whether he is alive or dead. Here -pj^g 
is another measuring instrument — the dyna- strength 
mometer — which will give us an accurate °^™^- 
description of the living, active man. By it we are 
able to measure the energy of the body and the ability 
to manifest that energy through the muscular system 
as a whole, or through each particular group of muscles. 
It tests the strength of the hand grip, the arm pull, the 
trunk pull, and so on (about twenty-five groups in all) 
unassisted by any of the other muscles. 

Since the muscular system is actuated and con- 
trolled by the nervous system, the dynamometer tests 
not only the muscles but the nerves and nerve centers 
as well, and so gives us a precise measure of the condition 
of a man's motor apparatus, or his ability to exert power. 
For this purpose it is used in the United States govern- 
ment military training schools and in the university 
and other gymnasiums, to find out the strength capacity, 
to bring to light any weakness in special groups of 
muscles, and so to indicate the kind and amount of 
exercise needed to bring the individual to a normal 

From an examination of two hundred healthy young 




7. Leg a. Leg 9. Thigh 10. Thigh I I. Thigh 1 2. Thigh 

Flexors Extensors Flexors Extensors /Adductors /Abductors 

13. Arm IH. ,Arm 

Flexors Extensors mus Dors 

5.L».-tissi- 16. Pronators 17. Supinators I?. NecK 19. Neck 

/Interior Posterior 


mim "'■"":] WHL. •*. ■/ a iff*- 4 JIT"'* 

?0, Neck 2L Shoulder 22. Pectorals 23. Inspir- 2M. In-spir- 25. Trunk 26 Trunk 

A-ti on Chest ^.tion WAist (=\nterior L6.ter&l 

Lateral Retra^ctors 




men between the ages of twenty to thirt}^ and an equal 
number of healthy young w^omen of the same -^i^^t one's 
age, the following table showing their com- strength 
parative strength expressed in pounds avoir- ^^°^^^ ^®- 
dupois has been made. 


Strength of trunk 
Strength of chest . 
Strength of entire body 


Strength of arms 1530 pounds 865 pounds 

Strength of legs ! 2265 pounds 1325 pounds 

1040 pounds 515 pounds 

365 pounds 165 pounds 

5200 pounds I 2870 pounds 

From a study of these tables we may learn some 
interesting facts. The total strength of the average 
woman as compared with that of the average man is 
.55, or a little more than half. The weight of the aver- 
age woman as compared with that of the average man 
is .86, or about four fifths. The height of the average 
woman as compared with that of the average man is 
.94. It thus appears that the average woman is even 
more inferior to the average man in strength than she 
is in height and weight. 

In a comparative study of tall men and short men, it 
has been found that tall men are at nearly every point 
stronger than short men. The total strength capacity 
of the short man was found to be ninety per cent of that 
of the tall man. 

The total strength capacity of the muscles in a well- 



developed man is about 10,000 foot pounds, that is, 
the abihty to Hft 10,000 pounds one foot high. This 
represents, of course, not the weight that the man could 
actually lift, but the aggregate strength of all the muscles 
of the body. 



This shows the total amount of work that may be done in one day by 

a laboring man. 

The total amount of work that may be done in a day 
by an ordinary laboring man is estimated by competent 
authorities to be about equal to 1,800,000 foot pounds, 
or the lifting of nine hundred tons one foot high. This 
is equivalent to the lifting of a hundred pound weight 
one foot high, thirty times a minute during ten hours. 


A man could not, of course, accomplish this with his 
arms alone, but by employing both his arms and his 
legs he may accomplish this enormous amount and even 
more. Indeed, the body has such a wonderful capacity 
for work that it is possible for a strong man to put 
forth this amount of effort in a fraction of a day by 
taxing his energies to the utmost, as in such violent 
exercise as a rowing or swimming contest. 

Health Problems 

1. Find out whether the leading men in your community are 
above the average in height or below it. 

2. If you can do so, find out whether the tall men in your 
community belong to some particular profession. 

3. Have the presidents of the United States been above the 
average height, or have they been below it ? 

4. Are there some kinds of work which can be done by short 
as well as by tall men ^ If you think so, mention the kinds of 
work you have in mind. 

5. Is it as necessary that men should be tall to-day as it was 
thousands of years ago, when they worked with the muscles 
mainly, and when there were no railroads, telephones, automobiles, 
or such inventions ? 

6. How many of the people you meet seem to you to be sym- 
metrical and well poised ? What is the trouble with those who 
are not so ? 

7. What is the chief reason why people become unsymmetrical, 
do you think ? 

8. Which would you rather be, if you could not be exactly 
normal — too lean or too fleshy ^ Why .? 

9. Do you know many people who are too fleshy .? What 
habits of living make them so ? 



10. Are the people in your community who are "doing things" 
lean people, or are they fat ? 

11. Show by taking some object in the room what a foot pound 

12. How much work would you do in one minute if you should 
lift a classmate weighing fifty pounds three feet high twelve times 
in the minute f 

13. Try to calculate in foot pounds how much work you would 
do in one day if you should walk fifteen miles on a level road. 

Review Questions 

1. What is the height of the average man .? Of the average 
woman ? 

2. Why is sitting height more important than standing height .? 

3. Is the average height of men and women increasing or de- 
creasing ^ 

4. Are the greatest men as a rule the tallest men ? Can you 
name a great man who is quite short ? 

5. How may height be increased .? At what time in life does 
a person increase the most in height .? Why ? 

6. What is meant by symmetry ? Why is symmetry more 
important than weight .? 

7. According to Doctor Giovanni, what are the ideal proportions 
for the human body ? 

8. What habits of sitting and standing may spoil the symmetry 
of the bod}^ .? 

9. Describe a beautiful person. 

10. What does a rapid loss in weight often indicate ? 

11. Is a rapid gain in weight a good thing ? 

12. Which live the longer, usually — lean people or very 
fleshy people ? 

13. How were people who were too fleshy treated in Sparta } 

14. What is a dynamometer ^ Describe its use. 


15. How does the average woman compare with the average 
man in height ? In strength ? In weight ? 

16. What is meant by a foot pound ? The work done by the 
average laboring man in one day is equal to how many foot 
pounds ? 

The Vital Machinery 

As you probably know already, a great amount of 
work is done by the heart. The work done by the right 
The work ventricle, which sends the blood into the 
of the lungs, or the pulmonary circulation, is only one 
heart. third that of the left ventricle, which drives the 
blood through the general circulation. One physiolo- 
gist has calculated that the work done by the two ven- 
tricles in twenty-four hours "is enough to raise a 
weight of half a stone (seven pounds) from the bottom 
of the lowest mine to the top of the highest mountain, 
or to raise the man himself to more than twice the height 
of the spire of Strasbourg Cathedral," which is a dis- 
tance of about one thousand feet. 

When the heart contracts, a wavelike impulse is sent 
throughout the whole system, traveling from the heart 
to the remotest part of the system in the sixth part of a 
second, so that it is practically instantaneous. Where 
the arteries come close to the surface, this movement 
(the pulse) may be felt. The frequency of the pulse 
depends upon the age. The following table gives the 
average rate for different ages. 


At birth . . . 
From 2-7 years 
From 14-21 years 
From 28-35 years 
From 56-63 years 
From 77-84 years 

136 beats per minute 
97 beats per minute 
76 beats per minute 

70 beats per minute 
68 beats per minute 

71 beats per minute 

In women the pulse is seven to ten beats faster than 
in men. The average rate of pulsation in men is 72, in 
women 80. 

The rate at which the heart works varies with many- 
conditions. When one is lying in bed, the heart has 
only to move the blood on a level ; but when one is 
sitting, standing, or walking, the heart has to lift the 
blood in the body to a greater or less height and so has 
a much larger amount of work to do than when one is 
lying down. In exercise, the rate of the heart beat is 
greatly increased, as you know ; and there are other 
factors which modify its action. 

The pulse is an index to the condition of the heart 
and an indicator of the general condition of the system. 
The pulse may be made to write its own record ,. 

^ -^ ^ Measunng 

by means of the delicate mechanism of an the work 
instrument called the sphygmo graph. The °^*^® 

, , . . , heart. 

normal pulse rate, as is seen m the accompany- 
ing illustration, gives regular, uniform curves. The 
long up-stroke represents the contraction of the heart, 
or the beat of the pulse. The irregular tracings seen 
below the normal tracing show how the work of the 
heart may be affected by disease. 

There is another kind of record that may be made of 



the work of the heart, indicated by what is called the 

Recording ^lood pressure, which is taken by means of the 
sphygmomanometer, shown in the accompany- 
ing picture. The pulse tells us the rate of the 

heart beat ; the blood pressure indicates the amount of 

force that is being exerted. 


Testing the blood pressure by the sphygmomanometer. 

The work of the heart, as we have seen, is to force the 
blood through the extensive and intricate pipe system 
of the body. The pressure or force required to carry 
the blood through the entire circulation and back to 
the heart is equal to that required to raise a pound of 
water five or six feet high or a mercury column five or 
six inches. 

In the same individual, the blood pressure varies 


considerably in a state of health. When one is sitting 
or lying down, the pressure is lower than when one is 
standing or walking. That of a person sitting quiet 
would be less than that of the same person talking and 
laughing. Excitement or anger, severe muscular effort 
or mental strain, will cause a temporary rise of blood 

The blood pressure depends upon (i) the force of the 
heart beat ; (2) the elasticity of the blood vessels ; 
(3) the volume and thickness of the blood. The pipe 
system of the body is not, as you know, like the water 
mains of a city, — made of hard, inelastic pipes. It is 
composed of elastic tissue which is able to adjust itself 
to varying conditions. When, for instance, one gets 
excited and there is a tendency to a rise of blood pres- 
sure, the elasticity of the walls of the arteries allows 
them to stretch a little bit and so to keep the blood 
pressure from rising so much as it otherwise would do. 

The arteries have longitudinal muscles, which pass 
lengthwise of the artery, and also circular muscles, 
which pass around the artery. The smallest ^^^^ 
arteries of the body contract and dilate wlxh of the ar- 
a steady rhythm like the heart, but independ- ^"^^^ ^^ 

(. . 1111 1 1 1 J circulation. 

ent or it, and thus help to pump the blood 
along through the tissues. The muscles of the arter\^ 
walls contract and force the blood onward in a manner 
somewhat similar to the way in which food is forced 
along in the intestinal tract. 

We see, then, that the arteries assist the work of the 


heart in two ways : (i) Their elasticity enables them 
to expand when an increasing volume of blood is forced 
into them ; (2) the contracting of the arteries helps 
to force the blood onward. 

It is essential that a certain degree of pressure should 

be maintained in the blood vessels since a considerable 

amount of force is required to send the blood 

The evil . ^ . 

of too high through the fine capillaries of the body. From 
blood ^]-^e large blood vessel in the center of the body 

pressure. — ^j^^ aorta — which is about the size of the 
thumb, the blood vessels branch and subdivide, becom- 
ing smaller and smaller, until they are so fine that they 
can not be seen with the naked eye. The white of the 
healthy eye looks perfectly clear, and yet it is covered 
with minute blood vessels, little arterioles^ through 
which the blood is being forced under normal pressure. 
So it is in the brain, in the kidneys, and in the lung 
tissue. These fine arterioles are carrying the blood in 
invisible columns, and the wall of the blood vessel is so 
thin that there is interchange between the air and the 
blood as it comes to the surface in the delicate lung 
tissue. If for any reason the blood pressure falls much 
below the normal, the force will not be sufficient to 
push the blood through the narrow capillaries. With low 
blood pressure some of the brain cells, the cells of the 
lungs and of the kidneys, and other delicate cells, do 
not get the necessary nutrition, and the tissues become 
impaired on that account. 

Examinations made with the sphygmomanometer 


show great variations in the blood pressure in disease. 
In fevers, shock, or other conditions in which there is 
great bodily weakness, the blood pressure sinks far 
below the normal. But in some diseases, especially 
in arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, it 
rises very high, sometimes even as high as three times 
the normal. 

When the arterial walls become shriveled, stiffened, 
and inelastic, there is required more pressure to force 
the blood through their narrowed channels, ^j^^ ^^^^^ 
Besides this, they no longer assist the heart ofhard- 
in pumping the blood, so that the labor of enedar- 
the heart is greatly increased. You can see 
that when the heart has to pump continually against 
a pressure much greater than the normal, it has to do 
a large amount of extra work. This causes it to be- 
come enlarged, and after a while it gets worn out, and 
heart failure is likely to result. 

A person's real age is shown by the condition of his 
arteries, according to the saying often quoted, "A man 
is as old as his arteries." Hardening of the arteries 
is a sign of approaching old age. A man of seventy 
whose arteries are still in a soft, elastic condition is 
really younger than one of fifty whose arterial walls 
are already becoming hardened. 

There are various things that cause hardening of the 
arteries, such as alcohol, habitual overeating, the ab- 
sorption of poisons from the intestinal canal as a result 
of a wrong diet and constipation, and lack of sufficient 



exercise. Tobacco, tea, and coffee, and also irritating 
condiments such as pepper and mustard, and the free 
use of flesh foods are common causes of hardening of 
the arteries. 

The words of the wise king to the young man : " Keep 

thy heart with all dili- 
gence, for out of it are 
the issues of life," may 
well be given a phys- 
ical application. A 
strong heart insures 
vigorous circulation 
and an ample supply 
of blood to every part. 
Especially in the crises 
of life (in times of men- 
tal or physical strain 
or of acute disease) 
success or failure, life 
or death, may de- 
pend upon the sound- 
ness and strength of 
the heart. 
There is another measuring instrument, the spi- 
rometer, by means of which we can find out the vital 
The vital Capacity of a man ; that is, the amount of air 
capacity. ^j^^t can be changed at one respiration. 

Lung capacity is determined by the extent of the lung 
surface or respiratory area, indicated by the size of the 

The spirometer for measuring a man's 

VITAL capacity. 



chest and also by the mobility of the chest ; that is, its 
capacity for movement. The strength of the muscles 
which expand the chest is also a factor in determining 
lung capacity. 

The vital capacity is measured by an individual's 
breathing into the spirometer after taking into the 
lungs as much air as they will hold. The Measuring 
comparison of many records taken in this way the vital 
shows that lung capacity depends much upon ^^P^"*y- 
the height, and in men increases at the rate of nine 
cubic inches for every inch of increase in height be- 
tween five and six feet. It is about 175 cubic inches 
for a man five feet in height, and about 285 cubic inches 
in men six feet in height. The following table shows 
the normal capacity of the lungs for men and women 
of different heights. 

Table showing Vital Capacity of Persons of Different 



Table for WoiiEN 

Height in inches 

Spirometer (cu. in.) 

Height in inches 

Spirometer (cu. in.) 













The respiratory area or size of the breathing appa- 
ratus may be permanently lessened by pneumonia, 
tuberculosis, pleurisy, and other diseases which damage 
the lung structure. It may also be diminished by an 
accumulation of fat within the chest and about the 
heart. A very fat person or animal is always troubled 
with shortness of breath. This is a serious condition 
which should be overcome whenever possible. 

No physical endowment is of more importance for a 
long and vigorous life than capacious lungs. In all 
kinds of work, both mental and physical, the lung 
capacity is an important factor. The intensity and 
efficiency of an individual's life depends very much 
upon the amount of air he habitually passes in and out 
of his body ; just as the intensity of a fire, given plenty 
of fuel, depends upon the rate at which the air is brought 
in contact with the fuel. 

It is possible, however, for one to take a large amount 
of air into the lungs and yet for the body to be deprived 
The vital of oxygeu. The real breathing of the body is 
resistance. i\^q "internal respiration," — tli^e taking in of 
oxygen by the cells. The spirometer measures the 
capacity of the man for taking air into the lungs but 
does not tell us the capacity of the blood for carrying 
the oxygen to the cells. This is one of the interesting 
things that we may learn by an examination of a drop 
of blood taken from the finger. 

The percentage of hemoglobin — the normal is lOO — 
indicates the richness of the blood in coloring matter, 



upon which depends the power to carry oxygen. A 
person whose percentage of hemoglobin is very low, as 
in the disease known as ancsmia, is short of breath 
because, although he takes into his lungs a sufficient 
amount of oxygen, his blood is not able to absorb and 

Getting a drop of blood to see in what condition the blood cells are. 

hold it ; so the effect is the same as if he were breathing 
rarefied air or had a considerably reduced lung capacity. 
Under the microscope the red and white cells in the 
drop of blood may be counted. The red cells of the 
entire body normally number about twenty-five million 
million( 25,000,000,000,000), and if spread out on a flat 



The fight- 
ing power 
of the 

surface would cover an area of 14,000 square feet, 
or a space 70 x 200 feet. The red cells are the oxygen 
carriers of the body, and it is of great importance that 
they should not be diminished. 

The white cells, as you know, are the defenders of 
the body, ^hey form a standing army always on the 
alert to resist invasion from mischievous germs 
and ready to take offensive measures against 
them. The white cells also assist in the heal- 
ing of wounds and repairing of tissues. If 
from any cause the white cells are so weakened or so 

deficient in numbers that 
they are powerless to over- 
come the germ invaders, 
the body is in great danger 
from the germs of malaria, 
tuberculosis, and other in- 
fectious diseases. 

There are certain signs 
by which you may know 
if your vital resistance is 
getting below normal : 

Blood cells. 

B, red cells seen from the side; D, red 
cells seen on edge ; F, G, white blood cells. 

Pimples, boils, or other eruptions of the skin are due to germs 
which have been able to get beneath the outer fortification of 
the skin and gain a foothold. 

A coated tongue is due to a growth of germs upon it and indi- 
cates low resistance, even though the body may appear to be 

Decay of the teeth is also a sign of lowered vitality. 


Watch yourself for any of these signs of lowered 
resistance, and, at their first appearance, take measures 
to increase your vital resistance. This may be done 
by means of outdoor life and exercise, cold baths, sun 
baths, swimming, and other similar measures. 

The energy used in the body has but one source of 
supply. It is all maintained by the combustion of the 
material taken in as food, which is burned or 
oxidized by the oxygen derived from the air. the amount 
The output of energy, therefore, must depend of food 
upon the intake of food, which serves the body ^^"^"""^ 
as fuel serves a locomotive. 

There are two ways of determining food value. 
One method is the percentage system, by which we may 
learn, for instance, that milk contains 86 per cent water, 
4 per cent nitrogenous matter, 5 per cent sugar, 4 per 
cent fat, and i per cent mineral matter. The other 
method determines the amount of heat or energy pro- 
duced by a food in the body. The last method affords 
the best indication of the value of a food substance in 
the body. 

In order for a definite value to be placed on anything 
there must be a standard of measure for it. We 
measure cloth by the yard, potatoes by the peck, sugar 
by the pound, and milk by the pint. But we can not 
measure heat by length nor by weight nor by any other 
of our common standards of measure. The only way 
in which we can measure heat is by what it can do. 
The standard adopted is the amount of heat required 


to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water i° C, 
which is the same as to raise one pound of water 4° F. 
This unit of heat is called a calorie. 

The number of calories in a food substance is deter- 
mined by means of a heat-measuring apparatus called 
the calorimeter. The calorimeter looks something like 
an ordinary ice cream freezer. It has two outer jars, 
one fitted within the other, with a dead air space be- 
tween. Within the inner jar is a metal receptacle con- 
taining a certain quantity of water. In this receptacle 
is immersed the essential part of the mechanism, the 
"bomb," a small, thick walled metal cell in which is 
placed the food to be burned. The food, which has 
been perfectly dried, is mixed with a quantity of sodium 
peroxide which furnishes oxygen to support the com- 
bustion. The inside of the bomb is connected by wires 
with a battery. When all is in readiness, the tempera- 
ture of the water is taken, and then the food is ignited 
by means of an electrical discharge from a battery. 
The operator sits watching a thermometer which ex- 
tends down into the water, an instrument so delicate 
that it registers hundredths of a degree. He notes the 
highest point reached and deducts from this the tem- 
perature of the water before beginning the operation. 
From the number of degrees increase in temperature 
the number of calories furnished by the food burned is 

By means of the calorimeter it has been found that 
one ounce of sugar, one ounce of dry starch, and one 



ounce of dry protein, each produces about ii6 calories. 
Fat, however, produces 264 calories to the ounce, al- 
most two and one fourth times as much heat as either 
protein or carbohydrate. 

Almost all of our common American foods have been 
examined in this way, and their energy value deter- 
mined by the United States Department of Agriculture. 

Food Material 







Beef, round lean . . . 






Beef, round fat 














Eggs, yolks . . 







Milk, whole . . 







Milk, skimmed 







Cream .... 







Butter .... 







Corn meal . . . 








Rolled oats . . 















White flour . . 








Whole wheat flour 








Dried beans . . 








Fresh string beans 







Cabbage . . . 







Potatoes . . . 







Spinach .... 







Apples .... 







Prunes .... 







It will not help us much, however, to know the 
number of calories in a given food unless we know 
also the number of calories required by the human 


body. This, too, has been determined by means 
of a calorimeter, which measures the energy expended 
The energy in mental and manual work, as represented 
expended ^ ^^le heat given off from the body. By 

in different /. .^ . ., , r , i 

kinds of this means it is possible to nnd out what 
work. food products are the best suited to workers 

with brain or with hands. 

In the experiment, a man is shut up in an hermetically 
(air-tight) sealed copper apparatus, and studied night 
and day by scientists who watch him through a port- 
hole. Oxygen is pumped in and impurities removed 
from the air. Food is passed to him through a double 
trap door. His only means of communication with the 
outside world is by means of a telephone, through which 
he is told what to do. Part of the time he occupies 
himself with brain work, and part of the time with 
manual labor. During the entire time the machine is 
registering the energy expended under the different 

When this device was invented, it marked a new era 
in the study of food and nutrition, as a great many dis- 
coveries were made by means of it. The experimenters 
were able to measure accurately the amount of heat and 
energy generated by foods of different kinds and the 
amount consumed in various conditions of work and 

The amount of food required depends primarily 
upon the amount of skin surface, as food is needed to 
maintain animal heat, which is chiefly lost through the 



skin. A child has a much larger skin surface in pro- 
portion to its weight than has an adult. For example, 
an infant weighing ten pounds has a skin surface of 
three square feet, while a man weighing one hundred 
and eighty pounds — eighteen times as much — has an 
area of twenty-one square feet, only seven times as 
much. The child, therefore, requires more than twice 
as much food in proportion to its weight as does the 

It must be remembered that the adult requires food 
chiefly to repair wastes and losses. Growing children 
require, in addition, material for tissue build- ^^ 

^ . , The vary- 

ing. It has been estimated that the growing ing needs 

infant uses fully one third of its total intake of o^ different 
food in tissue building. Based upon the care- 
ful studies of numerous investigators are the following 
tables w^hich give the average number of calories re- 
quired daily at different ages and for people of different 
height and weight. 

Tables showing for Different Ages the Normal Height, 

Weight, and the Number of Food Units or Calories 




Height in in. 

Weight in lb. 

Calories or food units 

























Height in in. 

Weight in lb. 

Calories or food units 











Notice particularly in the tables given below that 
the taller a man or woman the more food he or she re- 
quires in order to keep in health and do the best 


Calories or Food Units 

Height in in. 

Weight in lb. 

































































































Calories or Food Units 

TT„' 1,+ • • 

Weight in lb. 



























1 146 


















































By a study of these tables you can find out what are 
the requirements for a person of your age, height, and 
weight. Knowing the number of calories in the differ- 
ent foods and the number that you require daily, you 
may fit the one to the other and arrange your bill of 
fare in a quite accurate manner. 

All the functions of the body depend upon (i) a con- 
tinual building up process from material taken into the 
body as food and air and (2) upon a breaking ^j^^ 
down process which ends in the throwing out life 
of the body such materials as can be of no ^"^^ti^^s. 
further use to the organism. This building up and 
breaking down process is called jnetaholisni. 

It is possible to measure the metabolism of the body in 


much the same way as one may measure the capacity 
and efficiency of a furnace. By noting the quahty and 
amount of the fuel used in feeding the furnace and then 
determining the amount of heat, smoke, gas, and ashes 
produced, one may learn whether the furnace is work- 
ing efficiently and economically. In the same way, the 
efficiency of the body furnace may be measured by 
noting the intake of materials, and the output in work, 
heat, and waste products. 

One way of doing this is by means of an apparatus 

which estimates the amount of oxygen breathed in and 

of carbon dioxide breathed out during respira- 

HOW to . T 1 • • • -11 1 

measure tiou. In this way It IS possible to determme 
the rate just how the body is utilizing the food eaten. 
meta - 'pj^jg respiration apparatus consists of a series 
of bottles and instruments connected with each 
other by tubing. The air contained in this system is 
kept in continual circulation by means of a centrifugal 
pump and electric motor placed upon the lower shelf of 
the table. (See illustration.) The subject breathes 
from and into this current of air. The air exhaled is 
immediately conveyed to a large bottle containing 
chemicals which have the property of retaining all the 
carbon dioxide in the air that passes through it. This 
bottle, of course, increases in weight with the amount 
of carbon dioxide retained ; and, by weighing the bottle 
before and after the test, one can learn the exact amount 
of carbon dioxide breathed out. A constant supply of 
oxygen is introduced into the system from an oxygen 



tank as fast as it is used by the subject. This oxygen 
is passed through a dehcate meter which accurately 
measures it. The amount of oxygen consumed shows 
the amount of work done. In this way it is possible 

Measuring the rate of metabolism. Can you describe how the 


to find out if the metaboHsm is perfect or if there is any 
disturbance or failure in the intricate life processes 
whereby food is assimilated and utilized. 

We must finally speak of something that 
is much more important than stature, weight, 
muscular development, or any specific physical iiuman 
endowment, though all of these things of 
which we have been speaking have their bearing 

The mean- 
ing of 


upon it. That is efficiency, — the power to do and to 
keep on doing, in the best possible way, all that the 
individual is capable of doing in the way of work, both 
mental and physical. 

Efficiency is not the ability to work by spurts and 
spasms, by starts and stops, but the capacity, un- 
hampered by ill health, to get out of yourself the 
maximum amount of work with the least wear and tear 
on the body. 

For highest efficiency the most essential thing is 
perfect health — health of mind and body. A natural 
Health the endowment of mental and physical ability is 
greatest ^f course ucccssary as a foundation, but ill 
human health dulls the most brilliant intellectual 
efficiency, faculties, and weakens the stoutest muscles, 
while high health sharpens every faculty, gives poise 
and concentration, strengthens the will, brightens the 
imagination, and multiplies many times capacity and 
endurance of both mind and body. 

The Committee on Conservation of Natural Re- 
sources appointed by President Roosevelt did not 
neglect to consider the greatest of all the national 
assets — human vitality. This committee pointed out 
the surprising fact that the average man is only fifty 
per cent efficient; that we live out less than one half the 
natural duration of life, that we consume more food 
than is needed to maintain efficient life, and that one 
half of all human beings born either die before reach- 
ing maturity or fall into the defective, dependent, or 


delinquent classes. Special study and effort is now 
being made to prevent this terrible loss to the nation 
in human vitality and efficiency by the study of methods 
of race betterment. 

Efficiency is not only the greatest national asset, but 
the greatest personal asset as well. The ability to do 
and to endure, to keep on doing what one finds prof- 
itable, useful, and agreeable, is the very essence of 
personal, social, and national well being. 

The keynote of this progressive age is efficiency. 
Statesmen, professional men, business men, leaders in 
industry and politics, and workers of all classes are 
asking, how can I increase my efficiency .? Merely 
to exist is not sufficient for the cultivated, up-to-date 
human being. To be worth while, life must be efficient, 
forceful, productive. The ambition to lead a forceful, 
useful life, to make the most of one's faculties and 
opportunities, is the first step. in the attainment of a high 
degree of efficiency. Weakness of body or mind, — 
lassitude, lack of brightness and energy, — merely to be 
"below par" and to that extent inefficient, is disgusting 
to a bright modern man. He is not content with living 
a half life. He wants to live on the highest plane 
physically, on the top floor and not in the basement, 
— to be a one hundred per cent man, instead of the 
average fifty per cent man. In these times, any person 
ought to feel humiliated when he is incapacitated by 
disease which his own intelligent care could have 


Health Problems 

1. Can you think of anything that works as regularly and 
faithfully as the heart ? If so, what ? 

2. Have you ever heard of an athlete who injured his heart ? 
If so, how did he do it ? 

3. How does the heart act when you jump into a cold bath 
or pour cold water over the body ? Why ? 

4. Suppose you had to go one mile on foot as quickly as possible. 
Would it be best to start off running as fast as you could, or to 
start slowly and increase your rate of speed gradually ? Why ? 

5. Do you know whether the heart wears out sooner in very 
tall than in short men ? Ask your physician this question and 
give the class his answer. 

6. Why should overeating lead to hardening of the arteries ^ 
Ask your physician whether hardening of the arteries is a disease 
found among the rich or mainly among the poor. Explain. 

7. What is your vital capacity ? Compare your capacity with 
that of others of your age. If you are above or below the average, 
try to explain. 

8. Why should tall men have greater vital capacity than short 
ones ^ 

9. Do you know persons who are troubled with "shortness of 
breath" ? What is the cause of this ^. 

10. Suggest simple but effective means for increasing the vital 

11. Mention habits of life which will reduce vital capacity. 

12. Show that the efficiency of one's life depends to a large 
degree upon his vital capacity. 

13. Can you tell a person who is suffering from anaemia .f* 

14. How large a schoolyard should you have if you had one 
containing 40,000 square feet .? Should you have guessed that 


the red blood cells in all the body would cover this yard if they 
were spread out flat ? 

15. Have you noticed that your vital resistance is not as great 
at certain times as at other times ? Explain. 

16. Do you think most people should eat as much on Sunday 
and hohdays as on work days ? Why ? Should people who live 
in the city and who do not work with their muscles eat as much 
as those who do hard work in the country ? Explain. 

17. Write an essay on this theme: "Inefficiency as the Chief 
Cause of Unhappiness." 

18. Pick out the most efficient person you know and say just 
why he or she is efficient. 

Review Questions 

1. What causes the pulse to beat? Upon what does the fre- 
quency of its .beating depend ? 

2. What eff^ect does exercise have upon heart action ^ 

3. Explain what is meant by blood pressure. How may the 
blood pressure be taken t Upon what does blood pressure depend ? 

4. Describe the walls of the arteries and explain why they 
should be elastic. 

5. When does the blood pressure sink below norm al .? When 
does it rise very high above normal .? 

6. Why is it essential that the blood pressure should be normal I 

7. What is meant by hardening of the arteries ? What is the 
eff"ect of hardening of the arteries upon the heart ? 

8. What is meant by one's vital capacity ^ What instrument 
is used for measuring vital capacity.^ 

9. How is it possible for one to breathe in a large amount of 
air and yet for the body not to have enough oxygen ? 

10. How can one tell whether his blood carries enough oxygen f 

11. Of what use are the red cells in the blood f 

12. Describe the work of the white cells. 


13. What is meant by vital resistance? 

14. How can you tell when your vital resistance is getting 
below normal ? By what measures may a person increase his 
vital resistance ? 

15. What is meant by the caloric method of measuring food 
values ? 

16. Why does a growing child need more food in proportion 
to its weight than a man does ? 

17. What is the process oi metabolism? When is one's metab- 
olism said to be perfect ? 

18. What do you mean by efficiency? Why should one strive 
for it ? 

19. Mention some habits which increase efficiency. Mention 
some which lessen it. 

The Value of a Life 

There is a certain class of people in the South known 
as "poor whites," noted for their shiftlessness and 
indolence. These are all native-born 
Americans. Many of their ancestors 
were of Anglo-Saxon stock, which has 
been called "the flower of the race." 
Why have they degenerated into this 
condition of indolence, shiftlessness, and 
poverty ? 

A few years ago the cause was dis- 
covered, and it was found to be chiefly 
a Tuatter of ill health. A tiny one cause 
parasite, less than half an inch of shift- 
long and no thicker than a piece ^^^sness. 
of sewing thread, was the cause of all 
the trouble. This little hookworm has 
been called "the vampire of the South," 
because it sucks the lifeblood of the 
people. As we have learned, it burrows 
through the skin, finds its way to the intestines, hooks 
itself on to the intestinal wall, and slowly drains the 



1-7, segmentation 
of the egg ; 8-10, 
the embryo; 11, 
the worm escap- 
ing from the 
shell ; 12-13, 
empty shells. 


blood of its victim. It takes away from a person all 
desire and ability to work and makes him "feel tired all 
the time." 

Besides afflicting two million people with a dreadful 
chronic disease and slaughtering thousands of children, 
this tiny parasite has, it is estimated, cost the South 
several hundred million dollars by retarding the devel- 
opment of agriculture and industry. 

And yet, amazing as the statement may seem, every 
victim of hookworm disease may be completely cured 
at a cost of only sixty cents each, and the disease may 
be entirely prevented by the most simple precautions. 
Some one has put it in this way: "If you owned a 
machine that ought to earn ^300 a year and it was 
earning only ^100 and you could restore the proper 
earning power by an expenditure of sixty cents, could 
there be a better investment for your money V 

A sixteen-year old boy was so weakened by hook- 
worm disease that he was scarcely able to do two days 
work a week. He was treated, and the hookworms 
expelled from his body. During the next five weeks he 
gained seventeen and a half pounds in weight while he 
was working six days each week. 

This is only one striking example of the needless waste 
of human life that is going on in the United States. 
What does this show us with regard to the relation of 
health to prosperity and success ^ 1 

When the National Conservation Committee began 
to investigate the resources of the country, letters 


were received from physicians everywhere urging 
it to consider the bearing of pubhc health upon the 
efficiency of the nation. The need of conserv- 
ing the resources of the countr^^ — the forests, nomic 
coal fields, water power, and lands — was well ^^^"^ °^ 
recognized. But up to this time human 
vitality, the life and health of the people, had not been 
reckoned as one of the national assets. 

The conservation of health means increased pros- 
perity and happiness. It means, as we have seen, the 
ability to do more work and to do it better. Every 
person of sound mind and body is of value to the state. 
Every case of illness or early death is a loss to the 

The requests made by the physicians led to an in- 
quiry concerning not only the duration but also the 
effectiveness of human life. A special committee headed 
by Professor Irving Fisher of Yale University was ap- 
pointed to make this special investigation. Here are 
some of the things that were revealed by the investi- 
gation : 

Besides the 1,500,000 deaths that occur in this 
country annually (half of which are needless) there are 
3,000,000 persons constantly on the sick list. The time 
lost in this way amounts to thirteen days, nearly two 
weeks, for every man, woman, and child in the United 
States. At least half of this sickness and loss of time is 

Tuberculosis, a preventable disease, carries off 


133,000 persons every year. The cost of medical at- 
tendance and the loss of earnings before death aver- 
age at least ^2400, while, if to this is added the money 
that might have been earned with health, the total 
loss in each case is about ^8000. 

The loss to the country in a single year through 
typhoid fever, a disease easily preventable, is more 
than ^350,000,000. 

The value of human life can not, of course, be meas- 
ured in dollars and cents. And yet, with many people 
The com- in this Commercial country, that is the only 
merciai measurement that counts. It was a new idea 

value of 

human life, to most people that human life had a commer- 
cial value and that health was a factor in determining 
the wealth of the nation. The publication of these 
figures resulted in a great awakening to the importance 
of improving human health. 

The value of a man to his community and to the 
nation is determined by what he can do ; and his out- 
put of work, physical or mental, depends very much 
upon the condition of his health. Centuries ago Eng- 
land's great philosopher, Francis Bacon, said : "The 
public health is the foundation on which reposes . . . 
the power of the country." 

Much attention has of late been given to improv- 
ing all kinds of domestic animals. Draught horses 
have increased in strength, and race horses in speed. 
Cows give more milk than formerly, pigs are bigger and 
fatter, sheep produce wool in finer quality and larger 


quantities, chickens lay more eggs, and so on. At the 
same time it is to be feared that the human race is 
going downhill physically. 

In one of the states there is a law requiring the 
dairymen to sterilize the skimmed milk that is fed to 
hogs. Before this was done, many hogs became tuber- 
culous through infection by drinking the milk from cows 
suffering from tuberculosis. The result was great loss 
to the farmers. Now the hogs are safe, but strange to 
say, nothing has been done to protect the babies of the 
same state who are being fed the same sort of milk, or the 
men, women, and children who eat the cream and butter 
from the same milk which proved so deadly to the hogs 
that it was necessary to sterilize it. Should not the 
laws give babies as good protection as pigs .? 

The great educator, Herbert Spencer, said that to be 
a "good animal" is the first requisite to success. To be 
a nation of good animals is the first condition of national 
prosperity. Is the average American citizen a "good 
animal" .? What is meant by a "good animal" ^ 

In gathering the material for his report Professor 
Fisher made a very extended research. He thus states 
the results of his important investigation : — "I 

u 1 1 • u u • "Minor 

have come to the conclusion that there is ailments " 
scarcely a well man or woman in this country prevent 
after the age of forty. I mean ideally well. ^^^^ 
If you ask people if they are well, they will 
say, 'Yes, I am pretty well.' But if you ask them if 
they have sound teeth, if they have indigestion, if they 


ever catch cold, if they are troubled with rheumatism 
or neuralgia, or any of the so-called minor ailments, 
they will confess, 'Oh, yes, I have a little trouble with 
the heart;' 'My liver sometimes makes me bilious;' 
'I have a tendency to bronchitis;' 'I catch cold fre- 
quently during winter ; ' ' My kidneys do not always act 
properly ;' 'I am subject to sick headaches,' and so on." 

If all these "minor ailments" were eliminated, as 
they might be by healthful living, and all needless sick- 
ness prevented, the efficiency of human life would be 
more than doubled. Life would be not only longer, but 
much fuller. People would live more while they did 
live — put into life the full measure of work and en- 
joyment. More abundant life would result in greatly 
increased daily activity. The ideal life is not merely 
one that rounds out the allotted span of threescore and 
ten years, but one that is able to do its full measure of 
the world's work and claim its full share of the joy 
of living. 

Very recently, a series of investigations has been 
made by the Life Extension Institute of New York 
City among various classes of business men all of whom 
were supposed to be in good health, and the majority 
of whom were under thirty-five years of age. The re- 
sults were truly astonishing. Less than ten per cent 
were found to possess even fairly good health. All the 
rest showed very marked evidence of disease, and more 
than one fourth had really serious trouble of heart, 
lungs, or kidneys. 


It is a very old adage that "each mouth has a pair 
of hands to feed it." But there are three classes of 
people whose hands are not able to feed them. ^^ , _ 

^ ^ The duty 

You can tell who these are — the young, the of those 
sick, and the old. These must be fed by the ^^^ ^^ 
work of other hands. The hands of those that 
can work must feed not themselves only but those who 
can not feed themselves, thus paying the debt for their 
own unproductive period. 

Life is divided into three periods : the period of 
preparation, the period of work, and the period of rest 
and recreation. Most of the first twenty to twenty- 
five years of life are spent in preparation for work. 
When young men and women are cut off or incapaci- 
tated by disease just as they are beginning to do use- 
ful work, the community is robbed of their contribution 
to the general welfare. Do you think we owe it to 
others to keep ourselves as healthy as possible so that 
we may contribute our full share to the public good ^ 

In a community where the average length of life is 
short, there are more children than adults — that is, 
there are more mouths than there are hands xheneces- 
to feed them. Where the average of life is sity of in- 
long there is a larger proportion of workers '^^^^j^^"^^ 
than of dependents, and this results in greater of the 
prosperity and progress. Lengthening the period of 
average human life, a thing which is being 
done, as we have seen, by means of hygiene, increases 
the productive period. 


Following the period of work comes the usually idle 
period of old age. Some countries — Germany, Eng- 
land, France, Denmark — provide "old-age pensions" 
for those unfitted for work by age, and having no 
means of support. This is a serious burden on the 
community. But Professor Metchnikoff, who has for 
many years made a special study of the causes which 
produce the changes incident to old age, says: "We 
may predict that when knowledge of hygiene is more 
advanced, human life will become much more important 
than it is to-day." Especially in the aged will this 
result be seen. "Old age," he says, "at present a 
. . . burden on the community, will become a period 
of work valuable to the community. As the old man 
will no longer be subject to loss of memory or to intel- 
lectual weakness, he will be able to apply his great 
experience to the most complicated and the most deli- 
cate parts of the social life." 

Man has been called "an Intelligence served by 
organs." The "master tissues" are the nervous 
The system and the muscles under control of the 

"ruling will. Thcsc Constitute the man, because it is 
powers " j-jy them that all the acts of life are performed 
" servant ^^^ because a man is known by what he does, 
classes " In that wonderful nerve dynamo, the brain, 
of the o y. j^^g^g ^j^^^ plans are formed. The muscles 
carry out the purpose formed in the brain, and the 
man does something. 

The other organs might be called the "servant classes" 



of the body. The amount and quality of the work that 
the "master tissues" are able to accomplish depends 
very much upon the way 
in which they are aided by 
these "servant classes." 

"A good master inakes a 
good servant." If the serv- 
ant organs are well treated 
by the master tissues, they 
will do perfect work and 
there will be no strikes nor 
rebellions in the body com- 
munity. But if the ruling 
powers abuse or oppress the 
servant classes, they will 
bring trouble upon them- 
selves. If a person over- 
loads the digestive organs or 
overworks them by eating 
indigestible food, if he over- 
taxes the eliminative organs, 
if by lack of exercise he 
weakens the circulatory sys- 
tem, he will soon find him- 
self hampered by inability 
to think clearly, to move 
quickly, to work vigorously. 

The keen competition of our modern life compels 
the man who wishes to succeed to live at his best, 

The general distribution of 
nerves from the brain and 
spinal column to all parts of 



to keep all his organs in condition to do him the 
best service, so that his output of work may not 
be inferior, in either quantity or quality, to that 
of his competitors. 

It is also necessary that the proper balance should 
be kept between the master tissues, that neither the 
nervous system nor the muscular system should pre- 
dominate, but that the work should be properly dis- 
tributed between them. 

A combination of brain work and muscular work is 
necessary to keep man healthy and happy. Our 
Brain work Hiodern artificial life often condemns one man 
andmuscu- to do brain work altogether and another man 
larwork. ^^ ^^ physical work altogether, and so it de- 
stroys the proper balance for both. The result of this 
is that, as John Ruskin says, "Society is made up of 
morbid thinkers and miserable workers." Things need 
to be evened up. The workman needs to think, and 
the thinker to work, because "It is only by labor that 
thought can be made healthy, and only by thought 
that labor can be made happy ; and the two cannot be 
separated with impunity." 

Not only the worker but the work also suffers by this 
unnatural division. The efficiency of the brain worker 
is greatly increased when he does his share of physical 

Count Tolstoy, who was a great worker, both physi- 
cal and mental, said: "Sedentary intellectual work 
without physical exercise and labor is a real calamity. 



If for a single day I do not walk, or work with my 
legs and hands, I am good for nothing by evening. 
I can't read or write, or even listen to any one with 

The efficiency of the laborer is also greatly increased 
when his intelligence is developed by a certain amount 
of brain work. 

A college graduate who was in need of immediate 
work was put in charge of a gang of men who were 
shoveling dirt in some building operations. He saw 
that they \vere not putting much mind into their work, 
just sticking in the shovel and throwing out the dirt, 
and making in the process "false motions" that w^asted 
both time and energy. He took a shovel and began to 
experiment, finding out how the work could be done in 
the least time and with the fewest motions. He then 
instructed the men to follow his example, with the re- 
sult that the work was done in half the time that it had 
formerly taken. By putting intelligence into the work 
of shoveling dirt, he had doubled the efficiency of the 

Another important point for one who wants to get 
the most out of life unhampered by illness is to keep up 
the vital resistance. Before the cause of yel- Keeping up 
low fever was discovered, Dr. Sternberg, of vital re- 
Washington, went to New Orleans toinvesti- ^^s*^^'^^- 
gate. He tested, among other things, the air from the 
streets, the dust of the city, the water, hunting for the 
yellow fever germ. When he got home, in experi- 


menting with some of the germs collected, he happened 
to use some saliva from his own mouth, putting it in a 
test tube with some beef tea, and allowing it to remain 
overnight. He found that what developed would kill 
guinea pigs. Dr. Sternberg then thought that he must 
have got some disease germs in New Orleans and have 
had a narrow escape from death himself. He found, 
however, that when he tested the saliva of persons in 
Washington who had never been to New Orleans, he 
got just the same results. In every person's mouth 
are germs which, if allowed to grow and develop, are 
capable of destroying life. 

The germs of pneumonia, tonsillitis, and some other 
diseases are always with us, ready for opportunity to 
attack. Riding on the cars across the Western prairies 
years ago, I saw a picture I shall never forget. I saw a 
miserable cow, nothing but skin and bone, staggering 
along, almost too weak to walk. A hawk was perched 
upon her back picking her bones. She had lost the 
power to resist. 

You see, keeping up vital resistance is one of the 
most important things of life. Without that power, 
one is liable to become a miserable body with a wretched 
mind. The daily cold rub, physical exercise, and other 
health habits that keep the body in good condition are 
often neglected because of inconvenience or lack of time. 
In the end this neglect is likely to result in much greater 
inconvenience and the loss of much more time through 


We have some good examples of how much may be 
done for the world by one who intelligently Examples 
obeys these laws. Let us consider here one of right 
or two men who have done this. ^°^' 

Captain John Ericsson, the Swedish-American naval 
engineer, not only was remarkable for the numerous 
useful and wonderful inventions which remain ^ . 


as monuments to his skill, but was equally an example 
distinguished for the fact that in his long, ofright 
busy life of eighty-five years until his last ill- 
ness he never had a day' s sickness. 

From early boyhood John Ericsson was a great 
worker. At the age of ten he constructed a pump which 
attracted the attention of Count von Platen, the first 
promoter of the Gotha Canal. At twelve he became 
connected as draughtsman with the corps of engineers 
employed in the construction of this canal. At seven- 
teen he joined the army ; and, because his drawings 
and military maps attracted the attention of the king, 
he was made a captain. At tsventy-three he left his 
fatherland and went to London to introduce a locomo- 
tive of his invention. Three years later he competed 
with George Stephenson for the prize offered for the 
best locomotive. Although he did not win the prize, 
his locomotive, "Novelty," constructed in seven weeks' 
time, surpassed all others in speed. Among his im- 
portant inventions are a steam apparatus for throwing 
water, the screw propeller, and the caloric (hot-air) 



Strict attention to the laws of hygiene seems to have 
been the secret of Captain Ericsson's remarkably 
healthy life in which he was able to accomplish so 
much. He never neglected exercise. This he ob- 
tained partly by 
means of gymnastics 
at his home immedi- 
ately after rising in 
the morning, in con- 
nection with a cold 
bath, and by a walk 
in the open air in the 
evening. His diet 
consisted of simple, 
easily digested food 
taken at regular 
hours. He never ate 
suppers. He never 
let tobacco and in- 
toxicants pass his 

John Wesley was 
another of the world's 
great workers 
equally noted for his good h-ealth. It has been said of 
Wesley a ^^^ journal that it is "the most amazing rec- 
great ord of human exertion ever penned by man.'* 

wor er. "Qn horseback he traveled more miles, spoke 
oftener and to more people, than any other man who 

John Wesley. 



ever lived," "Eight thousand miles was his annual 
record for many a long year, during each of which he 
seldom preached less frequently than 5000 times." 
On one occasion his friends urged him to reduce his 
labors, as they were afraid his health would be injured 
by so much work. To please them he reduced his 
speaking to three times every day in the week and 
five times on Sunday. So far were his excessive labors 
from injuring him that at eighty he writes. "I find no 
more pain or bodily infirmities than at twenty-five." 
This he attributes partly "to my still traveling four 
or five thousand miles (a year), and to my constant 

John Wesley was a great advocate of healthful living. 
He wrote a book on health in an age when hygiene 
was almost entirely ignored. That he was extremely 
simple in his personal habits and allowed himself no 
luxuries we may judge from the fact that he lived on 
twenty-eight pounds (^140) a year and gave away the 
rest of his income in charity. He was accustomed to 
rise at four in the morning and to fill the day with work. 
He tells us of one of his early habits which doubtless 
helped to lay the good physical foundation for the 
busy life which he afterwards led. For six years he was 
a pupil at the Charterhouse, a school in London. 
During all this time he was accustomed to run three 
times around Charterhouse Square every morning 
before breakfast. By request, a friend measured 
for us the distance around Charterhouse Square and 


reports it to be 445 yards, or a little more than a quar- 
ter of a mile. Three times around the square would 
be more than three quarters of a mile. A vigorous run 
of three quarters of a mile, if taken regularly every 
morning for six months, would convert many a pale, 
puny, listless schoolboy or girl into a rosy-cheeked, 
bright-eyed, vigorous youth or maiden. 

Health Problems 

1. What is the relation between public health and national 
prosperity ? 

2. What does "national conservation" mean? Find out what 
resources the United States has taken steps to conserve and tell 
about them. 

3. Get a report from the health officer of the number of 
deaths in your city for the past year. What disease has caused 
the greatest number of deaths ? How much of this sickness do 
you think could have been prevented .? 

4. Make a list of things which a community should do to pre- 
serve public health and check those which your community is 
doing now. 

5. Explain Herbert Spencer's saying that to be a success a 
man must first be a good animal. 

6. How many days in the year are you compelled to stay out 
of school on account of colds and other sickness .? How could 
much of this be prevented .? 

7. What would happen if the employers in your community 
should overwork and ill-treat their workers .? Might something 
like this happen in the body if the organs are ill-treated .? 

8. Write the story of some successful man you know who was 
also noted for his health, telling especially about his habits of 


9. Do you know any person of seventy or thereabouts who is 
still vigorous and active ? What habits have kept him so ? 

Review Questions 

1. What is the "vampire of the South" ? Why is it so called ? 

2. Explain the phrase "national asset." Is the health of the 
people a real national asset ? 

3. Mention some laws by which the United States is trying 
to conserve the health of the people. 

4. What did Professor Fisher find m his investigations of the 
health of the American people ? 

5. Name the three classes of people whose hands are not able 
to feed them. 

6. What proportion of the people in your community are in 
the period of preparation ^ The period of work ^ The period of 
rest .? 

7. How long do you think the period of work or production 
should be ^ 

8. Name some habits which lengthen this period. 

9. Name some which shorten this period. 

10. Why is a country where the average life is short not as 
prosperous as one where the average life is long ? 

11. Is the average working life getting longer or shorter.^ 

12. What are the "master tissues" of the body.'* 

13. Show how the "master tissues" can overwork the "servant 

14. If the digestive organs were overworked, how would the 
whole body be affected ? 

15. Which of the "master tissues" should predominate — the 
"muscular system" or the "nervous system".? Why.'* 

16. How did the college graduate double the efficiency of his 
workmen ? What lesson does this teach .'' 


17. What part does vital resistance play in keeping us safe from 
illness ? 

18. To what habits of living did John Ericsson ascribe his 
wonderful health and vigor ? 

19. Tell also about John Wesley's wonderful vitality. 

The Benefits of Exercise 

History teaches us that the power of a nation very 
largely depends upon the physical fitness and vigor 
of its individual citizens. 
The conquering races 
have always been those 
that have given much 
attention to physical 

In the days when 
Greece rose to power 
and became Ruling 
the ruler of 
the world, the 
Greeks were 
devoted to athletic exer- 
cise. Their athletic 
sports found their high- 
est development in the 
Olympic games, where 
contests were held in 
foot-racing, leaping, 
wrestling, and other similar sports. It was a part 
of the religion of the Greeks to develop the most per- 


always de- 
velop the 

The greeks sought to develop a 
beautiful and perfect body. 


feet and beautiful body. As a result of this they have 
given to the world models of strength, grace, and beauty 
that have been an inspiration to all succeeding ages. 

When Eugene Sandow was a little weak boy thirteen 
years old, his father took him to the Art Museum, where 
he saw statues of Apollo Belvedere and Hercules. 
"Did such men ever live?" he asked his father. 
"Where did they get such ideas of men?" "From 
the Greeks," his father replied. He then wanted to 
know how the Greeks became such splendid men. 
" By exercise," he was told. "Could I do it ? " he asked. 
"I don't know why you could not," his father replied. 
The result was that Sandow devoted himself to physical 
training with such success that he became one of the 
best developed men in the world and was at one time 
considered the strongest man living. 

The conquests of the Greeks brought them great 
riches, and this led to luxury and intemperance. Alex- 
ander the Great, after conquering the world, killed 
himself by intemperance. 

In the meantime the Romans, by strict discipline and 
physical training, had been preparing themselves for 
conquest. They overcame the Greeks, and in their 
turn obtained control of the world. The greatest of 
the Romans, Julius Caesar, spared no pains in cultivat- 
ing his body to the highest degree possible. Because 
of this he was able to do more, to work for more hours, 
than any other man of his time. The greatest of 
Roman orators, Cicero, said, "It is exercise alone that 


supports the spirits and keeps the man in vigor." 
But after a time the Romans abandoned their simple 
Hfe and gave themselves up to luxury. They neglected 
their games and athletic exercises and hired gladiators 
for their sports and foreign soldiers to fight their 
battles. Then they were overcome by stronger races. 

A great awakening of interest in athletics has been 
brought about by the revival of the Olympic games. 
They are held every fourth year, in a difi^erent TheOiym- 
country each time. People of all nations may picgames. 
compete in the athletic contests. One of the chief 
events is the Marathon, a twenty-six mile race com- 
memorating the famous run of the Greek messenger to 
Athens with the news of the victory of Marathon. 
These games have aroused a new competitive patriot- 
ism. For the honor and credit of its country, each 
nation does its best. Many of the honors have thus far 
fallen to Americans, especially in the foot-racing and 
field sports. 

Now, when you consider individuals, what kind of 
men do you find are the ones who fight their way to the 
front rank and hold their places there ^ Is it not 
usually men who have trained their muscles to hard- 
ness and endurance by physical exercise ^ The man of 
mental power needs a tough body to enable him to 
stand the strain on the brain and nervous system. 

A good set of muscles is one of the best qualifications 
a young person can possess. There is no position in 
life which they will not enable him to fill the better for 



Effects of 
on the 

animal. Watch 

having them. We shall glance now at some of the 
special benefits of muscle training. 

Muscles differ from all machines that men can make 
in the fact that they grow stronger by use. The in- 
creased blood supply to an active muscle en- 
ables it to grow. Nature's first efforts towards 
the muscular development of the body are seen 
in the incessant movements of any young 
a baby kick out, when its legs are 
not restrained by clothing, and throw 
its arms about, clutching at every- 
thing. This constant activity, seen 
in all young animals, is one means by 
which their muscles are developed 
and strengthened. 

The effects of exercise in enlarging 
and strengthening the muscles are 
easily seen in the blacksmith and the 
woodchopper. Their arm muscles 
are large and also hard, while those 
of persons who use their arms but 
little in vigorous exercise are thin and 
soft. When they are not used at all, 
the muscles become stiff, as well as 
weak and flabby. They will not 
readily obey the orders sent to them 
by the brain. A person who has had a long illness and 
has not used his legs for some time must usually learn 
to walk again when he first gets out of bed. It is a law 



of nature that an organ that is not used dwindles and 
becomes useless. 

It is very evident that enough exercise should be taken 
daily to keep the muscles strong and flexible. 
But it is not necessary, nor even desirable, to the muscles 
develop the muscles until they become very strong and 
massive and hard. Heavy weight-lifting, 
which has this eff^ect on the muscles, is not a good 
form of exercise for general development. 

Charles A. Bennett, of San Francisco, was able to lift 
967 pounds of pig iron with his hands ; to lift 14 
tons of iron in a minute's time ; to put up a 158! pound 
dumb-bell, and to swing a pair of ten-pound Indian clubs 
4309 times in less than an hour, and turn 205 back 
somersaults in fifty-four minutes and ten seconds. 
He died of consumption when only thirty-five years of 
age. One of the strongest men in America years ago 
was Richard A. Pennell. He was able to put up a 
dumb-bell weighing 20if pounds, making a record that 
for years was unequaled. During the closing years of 
his life he was an invalid, suffering from the effects of 
overexertion. These men exhausted their vitality in 
the performance of useless Herculean feats. 

It is even more important to develop the muscles of 
the trunk than those of the legs and arms. Strong 
chest muscles are necessary for the complete action of 
the lungs. Strong abdominal muscles (Point these out 
on your own body) are needed to keep the internal or- 
gans in place, as well as to assist the breathing move- 


merits. Strong back muscles are especially necessary 
to maintain a healthy poise of the body. Weak back 
muscles lead to various deformities, within as well as 
without — flat and hollow chest, round shoulders, spinal 
curvatures, and displacements of the internal organs. 

Regular exercise preserves the suppleness of the 
joints and ligaments, not only those of the arms and 
legs, but also those of the trunk, which are of more 
importance to health. 

During vigorous exercise the breathing movements, 
as you know, are greatly increased, and the chest is 
expanded to its fullest capacity. As a result 
exercise on ^^ "l^^^^' ^^^ cattilagcs, by which the ribs are 
the joints attached to the spine behind and the breast 
andUga- bone in front, are stretched and bent. Can 
you tell what may happen to the chest if it is 
not regularly stretched in this way ^ The cartilages 
will become hardened, they will lose the power to 
bend and stretch, and the chest will become rigid. 
What efifect will this have upon a person's health and 
efficiency ^ 

Of course, the breathing capacity will be limited in 
one whose chest has become rigid. This is one reason 
why an old person cannot run. The rib cartilages are 
hardened so that he is not able to expand the chest. 
Many a person has died as the result of pneumonia on 
one side, because his chest was so rigid that it could not 
expand to make the other lung do the work until the 
diseased lung recovered. 



The spine also needs exercise in order to keep it 
flexible. The vertebrae that compose the spinal column 
are, as you know, separated from each other by discs 
of very elastic cartilage, which enable the spinal column 
to bend in every direction. Now suppose we do not 
bend the trunk in every direction often enough to keep 
these joints pliable ; what will be the result ^ These 

Which of these men takes regular exercise ? 

cartilages will in time become inflexible and rigid. The 
ligaments also which bind the vertebrae together will 
lose their flexibility, and the ability to bend the spine 
will be partially lost. Further than this, the muscles 
that support the spine also tend to become rigid and 
shortened when they are not stretched by frequent 
backward, side, and forward bendings. This is one 
reason why we find many old people unable to bend the 
trunk freely. 



Ask an old gentleman to bend over at the hips and 
touch the floor without bending his knees. It is un- 
Kee ing ^^^^^ ^hat he will be able to do so. Why is 
the spine this ? It is because of the stiffness of the 
flexible. spinal column. If the same man had begun 
thirty or forty years before to take regular daily exercise 

This exercise demands suppleness, "good wind,' and swiftness. 

of this kind, he would still be able to do it. A famous 
French journalist maintained the flexibility of his trunk 
to old age by picking up a pin from the floor every morn- 
ing without bending the knees. But you ask, "What is 
the harm if a man cannot touch the floor without bend- 


ing the knees ? Is he not just as well off physically as one 
who can do so ?" By no means. This stiffness in the 
spine, especially in the lower part, always involves a cor- 
responding weakness of the abdominal muscles. When 
the spine is as rigid as a mast, the body will be held 
erect with little muscular effort. It is not then neces- 
sary for the muscles to be in constant play in order to 
keep the body balanced. This is a great disadvantage, 
because the muscles which hold the body erect, balanc- 
ing the chest and shoulders upon the pelvis, by the same 
effort and at the same time hold the internal organs in 
position. So this rigidity of the back always means a 
weak, relaxed condition of the abdominal muscles, 
which may result in a falling of the internal organs. 
This falling always causes a multitude of ills. 

When a man goes into training for an athletic event, 
usually, his eyes become brighter, his skin clearer, his 
temper more cheerful, his step more elastic, General 
and his movements quicker. We can see how benefits of 
his whole body shares in the benefits of regular ^^^'■"^®- 
exercise. When the muscles are used vigorously, ac- 
tive changes take place, not only in the muscles but in 
all the surrounding tissues. More blood is required, 
and so the heart beats more rapidly in order to supply 
the demand. Regular exercise strengthens the heart 
and improves the circulation of the blood. It also, as 
we have seen, increases the breathing movements and 
so strengthens the lungs and increases the vital capacity. 
One who exercises very little easily gets out of breath, 



but one accustomed to rapid walking or running has 
"good wind." In the latter case, a larger quantity of 
blood is sent through the lungs, and so larger quantities 
of oxygen are taken in and carried to the various tissues. 
The oxygen combining with the carbon of the blood 

and the tissues makes 
a larger quantity of 
heat. How is this su- 
perfluous heat disposed 
of .? The sweat glands 
are set at work, and 
the skin is exercised. 

In tropical countries 
heat increases perspi- 
ration and is to some 
extent a substitute for 
exercise in this respect. 
In very cold countries 
as in Russia and Fin- 
land, sweating baths 
are much used to exer- 
cise the skin and keep 
it clean and clear. But the sweating which is induced 
by vigorous exercise is a much more efficient means of 
exercising and cleansing the skin than any application 
of external heat. It makes the skin clear and trans- 
parent, smooths out the wrinkles, and makes it firm to 
the touch. 

The effect of exercise on digestion is also very marked. 

What does exercise like this require ? 



You know how the appetite is increased by a long walk, 
a good swim, or a rapid run. What effect does Exercise 
appetite have upon digestion ? Nature takes and a good 
away the appetite of one who does not exercise, ^pp®*^*® 
in order to protect him from burdening his body with 
unused material wiiich clogs the 
vital machinery and fills the blood 
with poisons. 

Boerhaave, a Dutch physician 
who lived in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, noticed that hardworking 
people seldom suffered from indi- 
gestion, even after overfeeding. 
"I cannot help thinking," he said, 
"that most of our fashionable dis- 
eases might be cured mechani- 
cally instead of chemically by 
climbing a bitter wood tree, or 
cutting it down, if you please, 
rather than swallowing a decoc- 
tion of its disgusting leaves." 

A stream rushing down the 
mountain side will remain pure 

and clear, while the stagnant pool will become foul and 
slimy. In like manner the tissues of a person who 
neglects to exercise will become filled with waste 
material. As a result of lack of exercise, the food that 
passes into the blood may not get oxygen enough, so 
that products which produce disease may be formed. 



The introduction of fresh supphes of oxygen due to 
exercise will burn up these products and render them 
harmless. The rubbish that has accumulated in the 
tissues is carried away by the rapidly flowing life stream, 
and the way is prepared for new material. The more 
rapidly old material is carried away and new material 
is deposited in its place through the medium of the blood, 
the higher the degree of life and vital activity. This 
rapid change does not hasten the wearing out of the 
body but delays it by keeping it constantly renewed. 
When a muscle contracts, it is, as you know, in 
response to a message sent to it by the brain along 
a 7ierve trunk. It is impossible then to ex- 
muscle ercise the muscles without exercise of the 
training ncrves also. Exercise has a marked effect in 
benefits steadying the nerves, giving one self-command 

the nerves. ,1 • , f- at i • 

and mental poise and readiness. Nothing so 
well prepares one for promptness of action in emergen- 
cies as thorough training of the muscles, A body whose 
every muscle is trained to precision of movement is as 
much more efficient and useful than an untrained body, 
as the well-trained horse is more serviceable than the 
clumsy unbroken colt. 

The mind and character are influenced by physical 
training. Properly conducted exercises will develop 
one's judgment along such lines as measuring distances 
with the eye and calculating the amount of force 
required to accomplish a given end. This sort of de- 
velopment gives physical courage, self-control, and 


self-possession. It is one of the best means of over- 
coming timidity. The power of accomplishing a diffi- 
cult gymnastic feat gives to a youth a kind of courage 
and self-confidence which may enable him to overcome 
all sorts of obstacles in daily life. 

Health Problems 

1. Name two or three of the leading countries in the world. 
Are most of the people in these countries lazy and luxurious or 
are they energetic and temperate t 

2. Many of the cities in our country spend thousands of dollars 
every year on playgrounds and gymnasiums for children. Why 
is this done, do you think .? 

3. Think of some of the great men in history. Were they men 
with vigorous bodies and hard muscles as well as good minds ? 
See how many you can mention whose muscles were made strong 
by physical exercise and work. 

4. Find out what occupations the men in your community 
follow who have the strongest muscles. 

5. How does a person who has been sick in bed for a long time 
walk when he first gets up f Explain this. 

6. Do you know of any old people who seem as agile and strong 
as many young people .? If so, ask them how they have kept their 
muscles so flexible. 

7. Describe the appearance and disposition of some one whom 
you know who does not take enough exercise. 

8. Do you think one should exercise more in summer than in 
winter ? Why ? 

9. Can you mention any games which train both the mind and 
the muscles .? 

10. Can one take too much of the wrong kind of exercise.'' 


Review Questions 

1. What were the habits of the people who Hved in Greece 
and Rome when these countries were great and powerful ? 

2. What happened when the people became lazy and self- 
indulgent ? 

3. Tell what you can about the Olympic games. 

4. How may one make his muscles hard and strong ? 

5. What would happen to the muscles in a man's arm if he 
did not use the arm for a year ? 

6. Would it be a good thing to develop the muscles until a 
person could lift exceedingly heavy weights ? Why ? 

7. Why should the muscles of the back and chest be developed 
especially ? 

8. What are ligaments? What is necessary to keep them 
supple ? 

9. Why are old people often slow and stiff in their movements ? 

10. What exercise will help to keep the spine flexible ? 

11. Which have stronger muscles as a rule — girls or boys.'' 

12. Tell in what ways the whole body benefits from exercise. 

13. Is a person who stays quietly indoors most of the time as 
cheerful as one who plays and works out of doors .? Why ? 

14. What effect does regular exercise have on the vital capacity ? 

15. How is the skin exercised usually.? 

16. In very cold countries what is sometimes done to exercise 
the skin .? 

17. Describe the effect of exercise on digestion. 

18. How does lack of exercise injure the tissues .? 

19. How may the worn-out tissues be renewed .? 

20. Tell how muscle training benefits the nerves. 

21. What influence does physical training have on one's 
character.? Explain. 


Training the Muscles for Health and Symmetry 

In order to be of the greatest benefit, exercise should 
be enjoyable. We know that appetite is necessary 
to good diges- 
tion. In the 
same way, ex- 
ercise that is 
taken without 
reHsh, merely 
as one takes a 
dose of medi- 
cine for the 
sake of health, 
will not do us 
so much good 
as that which 
is connected 
with some in- 
teresting work 
or pleasure 
t h ?5 1 m?iKP^ it" 


a delight. furnishes excellent exercise. 




One's daily work usually provides much opportunity 
for healthful exercise. For girls, general housework — 
sweeping, dusting, making beds — gives splendid exer- 
cise, bringing 
into play the 
whole muscular 
system. For 
boys, no gen- 
eral exercise ex- 
cels that which 
may be secured 
in "doing 
chores" about 
the house. 
Splitting and 
carrying wood, 
running er- 
rands, and en- 
gaging in the 
various em- 
ployments in- 
cluded under 
the head of 
"chores," if 
done heartily, give good exercise for all parts of the body. 
Working in the open air is much more beneficial 
Using one's than working indoors. In cultivating flowers, 
work for vegetables, and small fruits, — digging, hoeing, 
training. pruning, — One is at the same time cultivating 

Gardening is a good exercise. 


health and muscular development. The ancient Greek 
boxers practiced digging as a means of developing 
their arm muscles. 

It has been shown that there is a difference of five 
inches in height and thirty-one pounds in weight 
between the Scotch agricultural population and the 
manufacturing population of Sheffield and Birmingham. 
This goes to show that work done out of doors tends to 
develop the physique much more than work done indoors. 

Dr. Dudley A. Sargent, Director of Hememvay 
Gymnasium, Harvard University, tells how when a boy 
he became interested in the laws of health through 
reading a school physiology and resolved to make his 
daily labor contribute to the development of his 
physique. He says: "Henceforth going up and down 
stairs was simply a means of strengthening the muscles 
of the legs. Lifting weights and bearing burdens w^ere 
approved ways of developing the muscles of the back 
and loins and strengthening the arms and shoulders. 
Plowing, mowing, raking, pitching, hoeing, chopping, 
digging, hoisting, and all the different forms of labor 
that fall to the lot of the country boy, were classified 
according to their effects in developing certain muscles 
of the body and were entered upon with the same zest 
with which one would engage in a course of systematic 
exercise. The proud consciousness that I was improv- 
ing my physique and adding to my strength and vigor, 
lightened the burden of labor and afforded me great 


Outdoor games and sports are among the best forms 
of exercise because they give at the same time fresh 
The best ^^^ ^^^ enjoyment. The exercises that are 
forms of most beneficial to the body in a general way 
exercise. ^^^ those that bring into play the large mus- 
cles of the body, especially those of the legs, as in run- 
ning, swimming, hill climbing, and rapid walking. 

Walking, in these days of steam cars, street cars, auto- 
mobiles, telephones, and the like is becommg almost 
a lost art. The city youth who wishes to go a few 
blocks usually jumps on the trolley car. The country 
boy ''hitches up" every time he has to go a mile. 
But in gaining a little time, how much physical benefit 
may be lost ! Some one has suggested that if a magical 
physician were "to invent an elixir that imparted a 
tithe of the virtue of a day's walk in the open air, he 
would be the Crcesus of pill makers. How much would 
we give for a bottle of his concoction ! Yet we may 
walk for nothing, and we may begin to-day." 

Do you know that when walking at the rate of four 
miles an hour you breathe five times as much air as 
when you are sitting still .? What efi^ect do you think 
this has upon the development of your chest } The 
natives of Hindostan, when they see a man going out 
for a walk, say, "He goes forth eating air." "If," 
says one, "every boy in the United States would take 
daily one thousand slow, very deep breaths from now on 
throughout his life, it would almost double our vigor 
and effectiveness as a nation." 


Robert Bur- 
dette gives this 
advice to 
young people : 
"Live out of 
doors all you 
can, my boy. 
Walk a heap. 
The open air, 
the free air, 
and the sun- 
shine are as 
good as the 
exercise — bet- 

The man 
who has done 
more a twelve 

to en- hundred 

mile walk. 
cour- "^^""^^• 

age walking 
than any other 
man in this 
p-eneration is ^^" ^' ^' W^^'^°^' ^^"^^ sixty-nine years of age, 


r^dWard Pay- days. He walked on country roads, AND VERY 

son Weston poor ones .-VT TH.A.T, much of the W.A.Y. 

When he was twenty-nine years old he created a sensa- 
tion by walking from Portland, Maine, to Chicago, 111. 
Forty years later, when sixty-nine years of age, he re- 


peated the walk, traveling a distance of 1234 miles in 
less than twenty-nine days, improving a little over the 
record previously made. Men have walked farther 
than this in the same period, but they walked on pre- 
pared tracks where they were protected from the 
elements. Weston traveled over country roads, many 
of which were very poor, and he walked in all kinds of 
weather. All things considered, his feat may be con- 
sidered even more remarkable than that of Captain 
Barclay, an English pedestrian, who walked one thou- 
sand miles in one thousand hours. 

Do you think Weston could have performed this 
feat that attracted the attention of the whole country 
if he had neglected personal hygiene and regular physi- 
cal exercise .? His performance is especially remarkable 
as showing that a man of threescore and ten years may 
after forty years of temperate living and rational exer- 
cise be able to endure the same physical exertion that 
he could before he was thirty. Weston himself ex- 
pressed the hope that his trip "would serve to show 
the young people of America what right living will do 
for one." 

Mr. Weston stated to the writer that he never eats 
meat when he is taking a long walk, but confines himself 
to the simplest and most digestible foods, living almost 
wholly upon cereals and fruits. 

It has been estimated that the amount of muscular 
work needed daily in order to keep one in health is 
about 150 foot tons. It is interesting to calculate the 



amount of work one performs in different kinds of 
exercise. In walking, for example, the amount 
of work done is much larger than would be the amount 
supposed. A German physiologist has demon- of work 
strated that in walking at the rate of three ^°^®."^ 

'=' exercise. 

miles an hour, one uses the same amount of 

energy that would be required to lift his body vertically 

Here is fine exercise for anyone. 

through one thirteenth the distance that he walks. 
That is, to walk thirteen feet, requires as much energy 
as to lift one's self one foot. If a boy weighs 100 
pounds, he would use up 100 foot pounds of energy in 
walking thirteen feet. 

How far would a boy weighing 100 pounds have to 
walk in order to lift 150 foot tons ^ In lifting his body 
one foot the boy could do 100 foot pounds of work. To 
do a foot ton or 2000 foot pounds of work, he would 



have to lift his body twenty times, and to do 150 foot 
tons he would be obUged to Hft his body 3000 times 
(150x20=3000), and to do this by walking on a level, 
he would need to travel thirteen times as many feet, or 
39,000 feet (3000x13 = 39,000), which equals 7.4 miles. 
Now will you figure out the distance you should walk 
to do 150 foot tons of work. The amount of work 
done would of course be increased if a burden were 

Walking 13 feet on the level uses the same amount of energy as 


carried. It is evident that a very fat person will 
accomplish a larger amount of work in traveling a 
given distance than a thin person, because he carries 
so much dead weight. The man who weighs twice as 
much as he should practically carries another man on 
his shoulders. This renders walking much more diffi- 
cult and is especially noticeable in ^oing upstairs or 

In going upstairs one is obliged to lift the body 


through the distance from the lower floor to the upper. 
If the distance were ten feet, and the weight of the per- 
son 170 pounds, this ascent would involve an amount of 
work equivalent to lifting seventeen hundred pounds 
one foot high. You can calculate from your own weight 
and the distance between the upper and lower floors in 
your house the amount of work involved in lifting your 
body from the lower to the upper floor, and how many 
times it would have to be done to accomplish the 
necessary amount of daily exercise, if it were all to be 
taken in this way. 

When one's daily work does not involve the necessary 
amount of exercise, and it cannot be taken out of doors, 
it may be easily taken in one's room if desired, ^^^ 
in such exercises, for example, as standing erect exercise 
and alternately raising and lowering the heels ; 
or bending and extending the knees ; or sup- 
porting the body upon the hands between two chairs 
or other supports, and letting the body down as low 
as possible and then raising it to position — the so- 
called "dipping movement." In this last exercise the 
work is done by the arms. 

A person practicing heel raising at the rate of 100 
movements a minute for twenty-four minutes, rising two 
inches each time, would do as much work as in walking 
a mile. How long would a man weighing 150 pounds 
have to continue this exercise, to lift his 150 foot tons : 

A larger amount of work may be done in the same 
time by lifting a pair of iron dumb-bells with the arms at 

in one s 


Simple ways of taking exercise within doors. 


the same time the heel raising movements are executed. 
For example, a person weighing 150 pounds, holding 
in his hands a pair of dumb-bells weighing twenty- 
five pounds each, making the total weight lifted 200 
pounds, raising himself two inches thirty times a min- 
ute would do work amounting to 1000 foot pounds each 
minute, or 60,000 foot pounds in an hour. Or if at 
each movement the dumb-bells were raised one foot by 
the arms, the additional work done would amount to 
90,000 foot pounds or 150,000 in all, the equivalent of 
lifting the body 1000 feet or walking two and one half 

Some people take a long walk now and then ; others 
crowd the chief part of their year's exercise into a few 
weeks' holiday in the summer. Of course -pj^g ^^^^ 
this is much better than none at all, but the time to 
body requires its daily portion of exercise as ^^^'■"^®- 
much as its daily portion of food. In fact, the exercise 
is necessary in order for the food to be properly assimi- 
lated. It would be about as sensible to undertake to 
do a month's eating in a single day as to take all one's 
exercise for a month on a monthly holiday. 

Exercise regularly, if possible at the same time each 
day. The body will then form the habit of exercise 
and will unconsciously brace itself for the work expected. 
Between ten and twelve in the forenoon is the best 
time, and the next best between four and six in the 
afternoon. On rising in the morning is, however, a 
good and convenient time for most healthy persons. 


The exercise can then be taken without the restraint of 
the ordinary clothing, and, when perspiration is well 
started, can be followed by a short cold bath. 

You know that when a muscle contracts, it also at 
the same time expands or thickens. Very firm pres- 
sure will paralyze a muscle for the time, by preventing 
the expansion that accompanies contraction. A muscle 
that is hampered by the pressure of tight clothing 
cannot do its work perfectly. The breathing organs, 
especially, should have the greatest freedom of move- 
ment during exercise. Loose garments that allow 
perfect freedom of movement to every muscle and 
organ should be worn during exercise. 

Much greater benefit is derived from moderate 
exercise many times repeated than from violent exer- 
cises repeated a few times. One not accus- 
fatigue af- tomcd to excrcisc vigorously should begin 
fects the with light exercise, always stopping short of 
extreme fatigue and increasing the amount 
of muscular work from day to day. The lifting of 
heavy weights or performing other work too heavy for 
the muscles may permanently injure them. 

In order to study the effects of fatigue on the muscle, 
experiments have been made with muscles taken from 
frogs, which retain their vitality for some time after 
being removed from the animal. When such a muscle 
is stimulated by electricity, it is found that the con- 
traction and relaxation of the muscle gradually become 
slower. There is an increase of power during the first 


ten or twelve contractions, but after that the muscle 
becomes weaker and weaker until it can not be made to 
contract at all. If left to itself the exhausted muscle 
will recover in an hour or so. But if the nozzle of a 
syringe is inserted into the artery and the muscle is 
washed through with pure blood or with a normal salt 
solution, it will recover immediately. If the washings 
taken from the exhausted muscle are injected into a 
fresh muscle, they will at once cause fatigue of that 
muscle, so that it will not contract readily in response 
to stimulation. If the blood of a dog fatigued by exces- 
sive exercise is injected into the veins of a fresh dog, the 
latter at once shows signs of fatigue. Explain why exer- 
cise of a part of the body will fatigue the whole body. 
Another curious experiment shows the effect of over- 
exertion of the muscles. One of the long muscles from 
a frog's leg is suspended by a piece of thread attached 
to one end and has a weight attached to the other end. 
Every time it is stimulated by a current of electricity 
the muscle contracts or shortens and consequently 
raises the weight. As the weight is made heavier it 
does not raise it so far and finally not at all. Adding 
a little more weight, we notice that the muscle lengthens 
instead of shortens when it is stimulated. You might 
think, perhaps, that the weight stretches the muscle. 
But observe that the muscle lengthens only when the 
stimulus is applied. ' When the current is withdrawn 
the muscle shortens again, but every time it is stimu- 
lated it stretches or lengthens. This may be one 


reason, perhaps, why overstraining a muscle may in- 
jure it permanently. 

An exercise to which a person is not accustomed is 
generally more fatiguing than one to which he is ac- 
customed, though the latter may involve much more 
actual work. The amount of fatigue is more nearly 
proportioned to the difficulty of the work than to the 
amount done. For instance, suppose a person is made 
to walk a line. In one way, it is no more labor to carry 
the body on a line or on a narrow fence top than it is to 
walk on the sidewalk. Yet, if you try the experiment 
by walking, for instance. Upon a railroad iron or a fence 
for half a mile, you will find it much more tiresome than 
walking upon a broad path, where no effort is required 
to keep the balance. Why is this .^ It is because the 
nervous energy is used up in maintaining the balance. 
The balancing eff^ort exhausts the system by the strain 
upon the nerve centers. 

Most employments that are not sedentary give a 

sufficient amount of exercise to maintain health. 

Some employments, however, give undue 

Exercise . . , , i i • i i 

forsym- exeicise to special muscles, and this may lead 
metrical to deformities. A carpenter or a blacksmith 
develop- ^^ generally be distinguished from other 

ment. j is j & 

workers by the way in which he carries his 
arms. The strongly developed flexor muscles over- 
balance the extensors (Point out these muscles) so that 
the arms are constantly bent when they are at rest as 
well as when they are at work. ■ 


Ignorance, carelessness, and weariness often lead a 
person to assume awkward and unhealthful positions 
while he is engaged in work, and this may result in fixed 
deformities. It is, of course, of great importance to 
maintain a correct poise during work. 

It is also necessary to give a little thought to the 
matter so as to avoid one-sided development. Most 
persons use the muscles of the right side much more 
than those of the left. Everything requiring strength 
or dexterity is done with the right hand. Even the 
right leg usually has enough more training to make it a 
little larger than the left. The extra work done by the 
right side of the body increases the strength of the 
muscles of this side, causing the spine to curve toward 
the left side, and the right shoulder to drop a little. 
There is probably not more than one person in four who 
does not have this deformity in some degree, but with 
proper physical training it may be avoided or overcome. 

A girl whose time was chiefly spent in doing house- 
work became remarkable for her fine physique and 
symmetrical development. She attributed it to the 
fact that she was always careful to give both sides 
of her body an equal amount of exercise in doing her 
work. For instance, when she was polishing the stove, 
she would do half of the work with her right arm and 
half with her left. When she was carrying buckets of 
water, she "changed hands" frequently, and regulated 
all her work in the same way. 

Even those engaged in muscular work require special 


exercise as a rule to bring into play all the muscles of 
the body and secure symmetrical development. A 
man might sit down by the roadside and spend ten 
hours a day breaking stones with a hammer, as men 
may be seen doing on the roadways of England, and the 
active exercise would give him a good appetite, sound 
digestion, and strong arm muscles ; but the rest of the 
body, if neglected, would become seriously deformed. 
His limbs would become stiff, his gait feeble and awk- 
ward, and all symmetry of form and grace of movement 
would be lost. 

An important point to remember is that a little exer- 
cise taken in the right position is sufficient to counter- 
Corrective act long-continued exercise in the wrong posi- 
exercises. tiou ; bccausc in the one case we are working 
with Nature and in the other against her. For this 
reason a little general exercise of the whole body, taken 
in a correct position, will have the effect of preventing 
deformities that might otherwise be caused by one's 
work. It is a good thing, however, to give special 
exercise to those muscles that have been too long 
stretched or contracted. 

One whose back has been bent at his work may save 
himself from round shoulders and a backward curvature 
of the spine by taking daily five or ten minutes vigor- 
ous exercise of the back and arm muscles with the 
spinal column in the erect position. The chest muscles 
which have been inactive should also be specially exer- 



To correct round shoulders and flat chest : raise the 
chest as high as possible, draw in slowly a long, deep 
breath, and at the same time press the back of the neck 
hard against the collar. Do this repeatedly. It will 
bring the spinal column into the correct position, 
straighten out the back between the shoulders, and 
deepen the chest. Persons who have round shoulders 
and flat chests should sleep on a hard mattress, with a 
very thin pillow 
or none at all. 

When the head 
is constantly bent 
forward in study- 
ing or working, 
the muscles at the 
back of the neck 
that support the 
head lose their 
tone from being 

continually on the stretch, as a piece of elastic over- 
Stretched loses the power to contract. Unless the mus- 
cle tone is restored by suitable exercise, the droop of the 
head may become a permanent deformity. A splendid 
exercise for the muscles of the back is the following : 
Lie upon the floor face downward, and raise the head 
upward as far as possible. Any other exercise that 
draws the head upward and backward will help to 
strengthen these muscles that hold the head erect. 

The strength of the abdominal muscles which, as we 

This is a good exercise for strengthening 
the abdominal muscles. 


have seen, has such an important relation to the health 
of the body, may be greatly increased by the following 
simple exercises : Walking on tiptoe with the chest 
held high ; running around the room on all fours ; 
lying on the back, with the legs held straight, raising 
them to the perpendicular, repeating ten to twenty 
times three times a day ; lying on the back and raising 
the body to the sitting position with the hands placed 
at the back of the neck. 

One whose work keeps his hands bent continually, as 
in rowing, shoveling, or writing, may counteract the 
effects of this by forcibly extending the fingers as much 
as possible several times in succession, at intervals 
during his work. 

Health Problems 

1. Make a list of the tasks which you do at home and which 
you enjoy doing. 

2. Observe the people you know who work out of doors and 
compare them with people who work indoors. Which are the 
larger and stronger f Which are the more healthy and cheerful 
in appearance f 

3. Make a list of all the outdoor games and sports you enjoy 
in summer. Make another list of those you enjoy in winter. 

4. How far do you walk in coming to school .? Is the road 
level or does it go up and down hill ? About how many times 
should you have to walk this distance in order to do 150 foot tons 
of work .? 

5. Open and shut your hand vigorously and rapidly for five 
minutes. Do the muscles work as easily and readily at the end 
of the experiment as they did when you began ? Why } 

6. In running a long-distance race, athletes do not start out 


at the height of their speed, but run only moderately fast at first. 
Why do they do this ? 

7. Try to write a simple sentence with your left hand. Is it 
harder or easier than with your right hand ? Why ^ 

8'. Perhaps you know persons whose arm muscles are strong 
and well-developed, but who cannot handle a pen or a needle 
easily. What is the reason for this ? What muscles does a black- 
smith train ? A writer or a needleworker ? 

9. Observe how many of your classmates have one shoulder 
higher than the other. What is the cause of this ^ How may it be 
remedied ? 

10. How many people do you know who carry their heads 
forward constantly ^ How may they correct this ^ 

11. What habits in sitting, standing, reading, or writing are 
likely to make a person one-sided ? 

Review Questions 

1. What is necessary in order that exercise may be of the 
greatest benefit f 

2. What kinds of work can a girl do that will give her much 
healthful exercise f What kinds can a boy do ^ 

3. What difference is there between the Scotch agricultural 
population and the manufacturing population of SheflReld ? W^hy 
is there such a difference ? 

4. What sports afford the best exercise ^ 

5. Why is walking so beneficial an exercise ? 

6. Tell about the achievements of Edward Payson Weston. 

7. How much daily exercise is needed in order to keep one in 
health .? 

8. Why does a fat person use up a larger amount of energy in 
walking a given distance than a thin person ? 

9. Describe some good exercises which may be taken in one's 


10. Is it well for a person to crowd all his exercise into a few 
weeks in the summer ? Why ? 

11. What is the best time for taking exercise? 

12. What is the effect of tight clothing worn while a person is 
exercising .? 

13. Why is very violent exercise repeated a few times not as 
beneficial as moderate exercise repeated many times ? 

"14. What effect does fatigue have on the muscles .? 

15. Why does exercise of a part of the body fatigue the whole 
body ? 

16. What is the effect of overexertion upon the muscles } 

17. Why is work to which a person is not accustomed more 
fatiguing than work to which he is used, although the latter may 
require more muscular effort ? 

18. Explain how certain kmds of work cause a one-sided 
development of the body. 

19. What should be done to insure the symmetrical develop- 
ment of the muscles ^ 

20. What is meant by corrective exercises .^ Of what value are 
they .? 

21. Describe an exercise which will correct round shoulders. 

22. Describe an exercise which will strengthen the abdominal 

23. How may one prevent his fingers from becoming bent and 
crooked } 

Food and Efficiency 

An engineer can measure the exact amount of work 
that a locomotive can do on a given quantity of fuel. 
He knows, for instance, that a ton of hard coal will 
carry a train a certain distance. The same weight of 
soft or bituminous coal would not carry the train so 
far, because it gives off less heat ; and since the fuel 
value of a ton of wood is still less, the distance that 
could be traveled on it would also be less. That is, the 
amount of work that can be done depends upon the 
quality and amount of the fuel burned. It is the same 
way with the human body. It is possible to determine, 
as we have learned, by means of the calorimeter, just 
how much heat is liberated when food is burned and, 
consequently, the amount of work that it may enable 
the body to perform. How many heat units or calories 
are furnished by an ounce of fat ^ How many by an 
ounce of sugar, starch, and proteid ^ 

The important question for us is, how best to main- 
tain the body in a condition of health and strength ; 
or in other words, to establish the highest degree The ideal 
of efficiency, with the least expenditure of energy. ^®*- 
You can see that the eating of unnecessary food means a 

H 97 


loss of energy to the body in handling and getting rid 
of the surplus. There is unnecessary "wear and tear" 
on the digestive and eliminative organs, and any excess 
is not only useless, but is likely to prove injurious. 
The ideal diet is the smallest amount that will suffice 
to keep the body in a state of continual vigor ; the diet 
that will give the maximum of energy with the minimum 
of expenditure. 

Recall what you have learned as to the uses of food 
in the body: (i) to repair the body tissues; (2) to 
furnish heat and energy. 

The material for building and repairing the body is 
furnished by the proteins in the food. The body is con- 
id stantly wearing out and must be constantly 
ingmate- renewed. Protein food is needed for this pur- 
riaiofthe pose. If uot Supplied in sufficient quantity, 
° ^' the body would not be repaired as fast as it 

wears out. A person who would continue such a diet 
for a long time would in time waste away and die. It 
is possible for one to starve on a diet consisting wholly 
of foods in which there are no proteids. 

The amount of protein consumed by the body is 
shown by the amount of nitrogen thrown ofif. Two 
men carefully noted the amount of nitrogen excreted 
on a day in which they did no vigorous muscular work. 
The next day they climbed a mountain 23,733 feet 
high, and they found that there was no increase in the 
amount of nitrogen excreted. This showed that the 
extraordinary work was not done by the aid of protein, 


but by the energy derived from fats and carbohydrates, 
the starch and sugar of the food. Numerous experi- 
ments made since have shown the same thing. 

The fats and carbohydrates, which are the fuel 
foods, do not form muscle, bone, nerve, and sinew, but 
only supply heat and energy by being burned The fuel 
up in the body. They may be stored up in the ^°°^^- 
form of fat, which is reserve fuel to be used by the 
body when needed, just as fuel is stored for future use 
in the tender of a locomotive. 

It is not necessary to eat much fat in order to be 
fat. The body is able to manufacture fat out of car- 
bohydrates (starch foods and sugar). A German 
chemist, Professor Liebig, kept a record of the fat in the 
food given to a cow, and he found that the fat which the 
cow gave out in her milk far exceeded the amount of 
fat that she ate in her food. An experiment made 
with some young pigs showed that they stored up 
more than four times as much fat as was given to them 
in their food. 

Some of the carbohydrate food is stored also, you 
may know, in the form of glycogen or "animal starch" 
in the liver and muscles. In this respect the liver seems 
to act as a kind of savings bank or place of deposit 
for some of the fuel not needed for immediate use, deal- 
ing it out as needed in the form of sugar. 

Proteins also may be used by the body as fuel, but 
this occurs only in case of necessity. People living in 
cold climates, in cases where there has been a coal 


famine in the midst of a severe winter, have some- 
times had to burn up their furniture for fuel. When 
that was exhausted they have even been known to 
tear down a part of the house and burn it. It was 
better to mutilate the house than to perish with cold. 
In like manner, when a person is deprived of food, the 
body first draws on its reserve fuel and burns up its 
store of fat. When this is used up, some of the flesh 
also has to be consumed' in order to maintain enough 
heat to keep life in the body. In such cases, of course, 
proteins, being the building material of the body, are 
used for fuel. 

Another case in which the body is obliged to burn 
protein is when an excess of protein food is eaten and 
" Clink- absorbed into the blood. We have noted the 
ers " in ways in which the body is able to regulate the 
the body, supply of the fuel foods to meet its needs, as a 
self-regulating furnace controls by an automatic device 
the supply of coal to the fire. But for the proteins there 
is no such provision. The protein absorbed into the 
blood that is not needed for immediate use must be 
burned up in order to get rid of it, — to get it out of 
the body. So if the body does not need the protein for 
repairs, it will use it, but it is a bad form of fuel, for it 
leaves behind what might be called "clinkers." 

When fats and carbohydrates are consumed they 
leave no ashes. They are changed into carbonic acid 
gas and water, both of which are easily eliminated. 
The carbonic acid gas is exhaled through the lungs and 


the water passes off through the kidneys and the skin. 
With protein foods the story is quite different. These, 
oxidized, yield substances that are not ready for ehmi- 
nation by the kidneys until they have been chemically 
changed by the liver. These products — frequently 
spoken of as tissue toxins (poisons) — circulating through 
the body may have an injurious effect. When present 
in large amounts, they dull the brain and irritate the 
nerves and may even be deposited in the tissues and 
cause hardening of the arteries, — premature old age. 

You can see that while a sufficient amount of protein 
is absolutely necessary to the body, great excess is very 
likely to prove harmful. It throws much extra work 
upon the liver and kidneys, which may result in serious 
injury to these organs because of the formation of 
poisonous waste substances, due to the fact that the 
body can not burn protein completely as it does starch, 
sugar, and fat. 

Besides, and this is a highly important fact pointed out 
by Rubner, the great German physiologist, the energy 
resulting from the burning of the excess of protein 
eaten can not be utilized by the body as is the energy 
of starch and fat. Energy can be gotten out of the 
food only after it has become a part of the cell. The 
excess protein is never assimilated, it never becomes an 
actual part of the living body, it is burned to get rid of 
it, just as we sometimes burn rubbish in a bonfire. 
Even the heat produced is extra heat which the body 
does not need, and so it is carried off by an increase in 


the insensible perspiration. Under conditions of ex- 
treme exposure to cold the heat might be of service. 
On the other hand, in cases of fever, and in hot weather, 
the heat excess induced by too much protein may do 
great harm. 

ApecuUar Rubner found that when a dog is fed pro- 
trait of tein alone, 40 per cent more food is required to 
protei . maintain his weight than when he is fed on a 
mixed diet containing a proper proportion of carbohy- 
drates and fats. This is the reason why meats of vari- 
ous sorts are sometimes called "heating" foods. An 
ounce of protein burned in the body gives rise to more 
heat than it could alone furnish. The extra amount of 
heat is obtained by burning the body tissues. 

Still another highly interesting and most important 
fact shown by careful experiments upon dogs and men is 
that protein is so poor a source of energy that it actually 
causes an expenditure of more energy than it supplies. 
In other words, it excites the body cells to expend more 
energy than it furnishes, so that it may become a 
source of serious loss when used in excess. 

Protein is the most necessary element of our food, 
though a comparatively small amount is sufficient for 
the needs of the body. Taken in excess, it causes 
waste of energy in digesting, absorbing, and eliminat- 
ing it, which means a strain on the liver and kidneys 
and an increase in the body of poisonous products which 
are very likely to prove harmful. When carbohydrates 
and fats are eaten in excessive amounts, there is the 


same waste of energy in digesting, absorbing, and burn- 
ing them, but the products they form are much more 
easily ehminated. They may also be stored as fat for 
future use, a quaHty which is not true of protein. 

From a study of a food table, we may learn that 
most of our foods contain all three elements, though 
in greatly varying proportions. Lean meats consist 
mostly of protein, with a little fat. Eggs have also a 
very high proteid value, especially the white ; the yolk of 
egg contains a good deal of fat and is relatively low in 
proteid. Milk, cheese, peas, beans, and peanuts are 
all fairly high protein foods. Bread and cereals are 
largely carbohydrates, but partly protein. Fruits and 
most vegetables are low in proteid. 

You can appreciate that it is not possible to deter- 
mine the exact amount of food needed and to lay down 
any fixed rule, because the amount needed 
varies greatly, not only with dififerent indi- amount of 
viduals according to age, size, sex, and so on, ^°°'^ 
but also with the same person under different 
conditions. The amount of muscular work greatly in- 
fluences the amount of food needed. Why should this 
be the case ^ 

It has been found that for brain work the body con- 
sumes very little if any more food than when at rest, 
though not sleeping. In cold weather the appetite is 
keener than in warm weather. More heat is lost from 
the body, and so more food is needed to maintain the 
body temperature. What kinds of food do you think 


it would be best to increase in order to supply more 
heat to the body ? Muscular activity is usually greater 
in cold than in warm weather, a condition which is one 
reason why people eat more in winter than in summer. 

Experiments and investigations made in recent years 
have thrown great light on the subject of nutrition, 
especially with regard to the regulation of the diet to 
produce the highest efficiency. 

Some years ago, Mr. Horace Fletcher found that 
when, with his attention fixed upon the taste of food 
and the enjoyment of the fine flavors in it, it 
innutrition ^^^ masticated until it disappeared of itself, 
— itsef- without forced swallowing, his appetite was 
fects on satisfied with a much smaller quantity than 


he had formerly been accustomed to eat. 
This economy in nutrition relieved the body of a great 
burden, and his health, which had become impaired, 
began at once to improve. 

Experiments were undertaken by Mr. Fletcher in 
Cambridge University, England, under the supervision 
of Sir Michael Foster, the eminent physiologist, and at 
Yale University, under the supervision of Professor 
Chittenden, also an eminent scientist. 

In Sir Michael Foster's report of the experiments he 
said : "The adoption of the habit of thorough insaliva- 
tion of the food was found to have an immediate and 
very striking effect upon appetite, making this more 
discriminating, and leading to the choice of simple 
food, and in particular reducing the craving for flesh 


food. ... All subjects of the experiments who ap- 
plied the principles intelligently agreed in finding a 
very marked reduction in their needs and experienced 
an increase in their sense of well-being and an increase 
in their working powers.'' 

Professor Chittenden undertook a series of experi- 
ments for the purpose of determining the value of a 
low-protein diet. A company of soldiers from 
the United States army volunteered for this ^^^^s 
experiment. For the first two weeks the ordi- with the 
nary army rations were given to them, and ^gj^^^^jg^ 
then the amount of proteid in the food was 
gradually reduced until it was less than half that to 
which they had been accustomed. During the experi- 
ment, which lasted about six months, the men were 
given daily vigorous exercise in the gymnasium. 

At the beginning of the experiment and at its close 
the strength of the men was tested by means of the 
dynamometer. It was found that every one of them 
had made a great gain in muscular strength, In some 
cases more than one hundred per cent ; that is, they 
had more than doubled their strength. They were less 
aware of fatigue than formerly, and could do more work 
without the feeling of fatigue that usually accompanies 
muscular work. 

To place the matter beyond question, another series 
of experiments was made. Men' in training for athletic 
events usually think it necessary to eat large quanti- 
ties of proteid food, and this is why meat has such a 



prominent place in their diet. A group of students in 
the university, all athletes, was secured. These men 
gradually cut down the amount of proteid food in the 
same way as the soldiers had done. To make sure 

that they were 
not losing in 
strength, dyna- 
mometer tests 
were taken each 
month. These 
tests showed, on' 
the contrary, a 
marked gain in 
strength, which 
seemed to in- 
crease as the 
amount of pro- 
t e i d d i m i n- 
ished. One of 
the athletes 
during these ex- 
periments won 
two champion- 
All-round Inter- 
The Director 

Courtesy of the New York Evening Mail. 

The men who win in great feats of endurance, 

AS in the marathon races and OLYMPIC GAMES, 

ships — the Collegiate and the 

collegiate Championship of America 

reported that they had gained not only in strength, 

but in ability and skill. These men were all athletes 

who had been in training for months, and in some cases 

for years, and were said to be " in the pink of condition " 


when they began the tests. In their case, therefore, 
the gain could be attributed only to the diet. 

All these experiments, taken together, show that 
the body may be relieved of a great amount of needless 
labor, which means a saving of energy, by reducing the 
amount of proteid food to much less than the „ ,. . 

^ . . Relieving 

average ; and this may be done not only with the organs 
no loss, but with great gain in working power, ofunneces- 
The bodily economy is not the only gain. The 
increase in working power means an increase in earn- 
ing power and a diminishing of the loss of time through 
sickness. The improved health also means a saving of 
doctors' bills. The foods high in proteid are as a rule 
the most expensive items in the diet, especially when 
the proteids are taken in the form of animal foods. 
If a family can be amply nourished on a less expensive 
diet than it is accustomed to, it is evident that there 
will be more money to use for other purposes. Professor 
Chittenden even goes so far as to say that if the use of 
food was reduced to a true basis, "the saving to the 
community and to the family might well amount to 
enough to constitute the difference between pauperism 
and affluence." 

What is the source of the food supply of the world ? 
You remember what we learned as to the difference 
between animals and plants in this respect. The seiec- 
Are animals an original source of food .^ tionoffood. 

In the process of growth the plant stores up the sun- 
light, which is the source of nearly all the energy on 



^^^^^ WatertlO.S Water;10.6 

Fat.4.3>;S^ro§^ ~Protein:10.0 Protein^ 12.2 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Office of Experiment Stations 

A, C. True; Director 

Prepared by 
Expert in Cliarse of Nutrition Investigations 


^ nil E^ mm 

Fat Carbohydrates Ash Water 

I Fuel Value 
/fe Sq. In. Equals 
1000 Calories 


Fat; 1.7 

. , 1 c V ■••-.•■•■•••/ vaiuohyclrates:73.4 Carbohydrates; 73.7 v-.-.-.;../ , , i q 

Ash:1.5 — ^<--/ . •' ^ Nis4 — ^Asn;l.o 



1800CAL0RIES Protein-.10.0~^^;iWater;12.6 1750 calories 

PER POUND Carbo-------lfiP^ Fat;2.2 per pound 

hydrates ;73. 2^^^^^^^^^^— Ash: 2.0 
Fuel value: 

OAT ^^M 

-Water: 11.0 1600 calories Water;12.0 

Fat:5.0-J^— Protem;118 ^" "^o™ Protein;-^ 

hydrates: 69.2 



uvT? Carbo- 

^^^ hydrates:77.0 


Water:10.5 "^^^4— Ash:1.0 

Protein; 12.2 c 

Fuel value: 

Carbo^' ^ . , 

hydrates:73.9 ^^ — Ash:1,9 

1720 CALORIES Fuel value : 


1750 calories 
per pound 

1720 calories 
per pound 

Composition of cereals. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Office of Experiment Stations 
A. C. True: Director 

Prepared by 


Expert in Cfiarge of Nutrition Investigations 


nnnniD ^m mm ^m imi bi, ^"^,'^,^'"^ 

„ . - - . . » L ^«/ i ^^■x.Sq. In. Equals 

Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash Water ^H '^'^^^ Calories 



•Water:53.1 Wateri52.0 /0 






Composition of meats. 


earth. The heat of the sun raises water by evaporation 
and forms clouds, which float inland until they reach a 
mountain peak, when the moisture is condensed and 
flows down the mountain side. Man puts a wheel in 
the current and the wheel turns the mill ; so the water- 
wheels and mills are really turned by the sunlight. 
The sun at the equator warms the air ; it arises and 
flows out toward the poles, and the air from the poles, 
being cold, flows back along the surface of the earth. 
Man puts up a wheel in the air and the wind turns the 
wheel. Coal and petroleum are sunlight stored up 
in the earth. These are burned in furnaces and make 
steam which turns engines ; so the machinery is turned 
by the sunlight. The same thing is true of animal 
energy. The farmer plants grain, which under the in- 
fluence of sunlight grows and multiplies ; he feeds it to 
his horses, which expend the energy from the sunlight 
through their muscles in pulling heavy loads. Our 
muscular energy, our brain and nerve energy, come from 
the sun through the food we eat. 

A locomotive or a stationary steam engine is a means 
for using stored energy. The human locomotive is also 
a means of using stored energy. The order of Nature is 
that the vegetable world stores up the sunlight, and the 
animal world expends the energy. What bearing does 
this have on the natural food of man } Is the food 
material improved or not in being first used by some 
other animal .? What is added to it .? What is taken 
from it .? 


Some time ago an eminent London physician was 
called to the zoological gardens to find out the cause 
of the great number of deaths among the baby lions. 
He found that the trouble was that they were being 
fed entirely on meat and were not getting any lime 
in their diet. He told the keepers to give them some 
ground bones also. After they did this the lions 
thrived. When the pig and the ox eat grain, the lime 
in it goes to nourish their bones. In order to get back 
the whole of the grain we should have to eat the whole 
animal, bones and all. 

Natural foods are sometimes modified by milling and 
so on so as to remove some of their valuable elements. 
In whole wheat, for instance, we find nearly Nainrai 
everything that the body needs, — a sufficient ^°°^^- 
proportion of proteid, carbohydrates, and the necessary 
mineral salts. But in the process of milling, in order to 
obtain fine white flour, the valuable mineral salts are 
largely lost. It is thought that the early decay of the 
teeth which is now so common is largely the result of 
*'lime starvation," due to the diet's being composed 
largely of meat and white bread. The English Govern- 
ment has thought this matter of so much importance 
that a "standard" for bread making flour has been is- 
sued, and the people are being instructed and encour- 
aged to give up the use of white bread entirely and to 
use only the "standard bread" made from whole 
wheat flour. 

A large part of the human family have from the 


earliest times used only food of vegetable origin, prin- 
cipally fruits, grains, nuts, and other seeds. At the 
present time these substances form the principal food 
of at least two thirds of the human race. The 300,000,- 
000 people in India live almost entirely upon rice and 
dahl, a preparation of lentils, with a little oil or melted 
butter. Rice is also the chief article of diet of the 
400,000,000 of China and Siam, and of the sturdy 
Japanese race. The millions living in the central por- 
tion of Africa live chiefly upon the natural vegetable 
products of the forest. The cocoanut, the plantain, 
and the banana form a very large part of the dietary 
of Central America and the West Indies. 

The best guide in the selection of food is instinct. 
But with many people the instinct that should guide 
them in this respect has been changed by wrong methods 
of eating. The "hurry habit" is largely responsible 
for overeating, so common in our country. The best 
means of training the appetite so that it will be a sure 
guide to the needs of the body is, as Mr. Fletcher has 
shown us, thorough mastication of every morsel. The 
stopping point should be the earliest moment at which 
one feels satisfied. 

You may remember about Alexis St. Martin, the man 
who had an opening in his stomach caused by a gun-shot 
Accidental wound and who was kept under observation 
discoveries, by j)j-. Beaumont. Alexis signed a contract 
to submit to all kinds of experiments for one year. 
During this year. Dr. Beaumont made some inter- 


esting discoveries which have since been confirmed by 
later investigators. 

He discovered that taste has a marvelous effect on 
digestion. When Alexis ate food that he liked, more 
gastric juice, which is necessary for digestion, was poured 
out in the stomach than when he ate food that he did not 
like. This important fact was almost lost sight of 
until Professor Pawlow discovered the same thing in his 
experiments on dogs. The more the food is enjoyed, 
the better it will be digested. You have seen people 
bolt their food almost without tasting it at all. Such 
people are likely to suffer from indigestion. 

Dr. Beaumont also anticipated Horace Fletcher in 
discovering that thorough mastication greatly lightened 
the work of digestion, — that the .longer the food re- 
mained in the mouth, the less time it was in the stomach. 

He also discovered that condiments, such as mustard 
and pepper and other substances that are "hot" when 
they are cold, irritated the lining membrane of the 
stomach and caused it to pour out mucus, laying the 
foundation for gastric catarrh. 

Baking powder, soda, and cream of tartar, which 
are used in cooking as a quick and convenient way of 
making light bread, cakes, and such foods, are likely to 
hinder digestion by stopping the flow of the gastric 
juice. Pawlow found that while a pint of water put 
into a dog's stomach caused an abundant outpouring 
of gastric juice, if a grain of soda were added to the 
water no juice at all was poured out. Though the daily 


use of these things may be small, their continued use 
day after day for months and years may not only inter- 
fere with the action of the gastric juice, but may finally 
destroy the power of the stomach to make it at all. 

Another substance which hinders digestion is vinegar, 
a single teaspoonful of which is sufficient to prevent the 
action of the saliva upon an ordinary meal. It has 
been shown that acetic acid — the acid of vinegar — is 
as powerful as alcohol in producing injury to the liver 
and kidneys. Lemon juice is a perfect substitute for 

Dr. Beaumont noticed that hulk in food helped diges- 
tion, because it stimulates the wall of the intestine, and 
so helps the rapid transit of the food through the ali- 
mentary canal, which is not likely to be the case when 
food is too condensed. This is a matter of great im- 
portance, because when the food stagnates in the canal, 
germ poisons are produced which cause what is called 
"auto-intoxication," about which you will learn more 
later. Fruits and vegetables give the necessary bulk 
to the food. 

An important source of disturbance to the mucous 
membrane of the stomach and intestines is cane sugar 
Irritating when taken in large quantities. This sub- 
the stance is not found in nature in the condition 

stomach. -^^ which it appears upon our tables. It takes 
about twenty-five pounds of maple sap to make one 
pound of sugar. This is a hint that sugar was not in- 
tended by nature to be used in the concentrated form 


to which it is reduced in these times. No provision 
has been made for its digestion in the stomach, and 
it is therefore acted upon by the bacteria of fermenta- 
tion, which change it into irritating acids. We have 
only a small quantity of the enzyme that digests cane 
sugar in the intestine, which would also indicate that 
it should not be taken in large quantities. 

It has been suggested that the "sweet tooth" that 
nature has given us is for the purpose of coaxing us to 
masticate our food thoroughly, because, when cooked 
starch is thoroughly masticated, it is partially changed 
to natural sugar in the mouth. Man originally ob- 
tained his sugar from starchy foods, which in the process 
of digestion he changed into malt sugar and also from 
sweet fruits and from honey. These natural sugars are 
very easily assimilated. But he now produces sugar 
in a concentrated form, and adds it to his food in large 
quantities, and even eats it alone in the form of candy. 
By this means the appetite is tempted long after hun- 
ger has been satisfied, and it becomes so perverted that 
it can no longer be depended upon as a guide. The 
taste for natural food is destroyed, and everything 
must be sweetened to satisfy the unnatural craving 
produced by the use of sugar. The normal appetite 
for sugar may be easily satisfied by a little natural 
sugar such as is found in raisins, figs, dates, malt sugar, 
or honey. 

A German chemist observed in experiments upon a 
dog that a solution containing only six per cent of cane 


sugar caused irritation with reddening of the mucous 
membrane. A ten per cent solution produced a dark 
red color with great irritation and caused the animal 
great pain. You can appreciate that sugar should not 
be taken alone into an empty stomach. Taken in small 
quantities in connection with the meals it will probably 
do no harm to a healthy person. 

Lettuce, celery, radishes, cucumbers, and ripe fruits 

are valuable because they supply the need of the body 

for raw food. The great attention that has of 

The need . *' r i i • 

forun- late been given to the diet of babies has 
cooked brought out the fact that a diet of cooked 
food alone cannot be taken for more than 
eight or ten days without harm. If continued for a 
long time in babies it produces rickets. It is now 
known that scurvy among sailors is due principally 
to the lack of raw food. Cooking is a process which, 
while it renders some foods more digestible, seems also 
to destroy some of the finer elements of the food that 
the body requires for perfect nutrition. 

Cooking is a sort of preliminary or external digestion 
for those foodstuffs which are not prepared by nature 
ready to enter the digestive apparatus. It is espe- 
cially required for foods containing raw starch — the 
cereals and vegetables. Unripe fruits, which also 
contain starch, need cooking to make them digestible. 
Meat and fish, while not made more digestible, are 
made very much more appetizing and agreeable to the 
taste by cooking ; and the bacteria which they fre- 


quently contain, as well as any possible parasites, are 
destroyed by the heat. The object of cooking, there- 
fore, is threefold : (i) to increase the digestibility of 
food; (2) to make it more appetizing; (3) to destroy 
bacteria and parasites. 

Foods eaten raw may introduce into the alimentary 
canal large numbers of microbes which are not found 
in cooked foods. Raw foods should always be carefully 
washed before being eaten, even when they can be 
shelled like nuts or pared like some fruits. To be 
rendered safe, uncooked foods should be dipped in boil- 
ing water or immersed for a few minutes in a five per 
cent solution of peroxide of hydrogen. 

While food may be rendered more digestible by 
proper cooking, it may also be rendered indigestible by 
improper cooking. Frying is a bad form of cookery. 
The gastric juice has no action upon fat, you remem- 
ber ; so when a particle of food is encased in a coating of 
fat, the digestive juice cannot reach it, and it passes 
through the stomach undigested. 

We sometimes hear certain foods recommended as 
"brain foods" and others as "muscle foods." Do you 
think it would be possible to build up any so-caUed 
special organ by any special food .? Fat may, " brain 
of course, be developed by feeding fat and ^°° ^' 
carbohydrates, but fat is just reserve tissue and not an 
organ. All the cells of the body, as a physiologist has 
said, "have a common ration, and practically sit at 
one table, very much as officers and soldiers do when 


engaged in actual warfare. No one then thinks of 
giving to officers brain food and to common soldiers 
muscle food, but rather a good, general 'all-round' food 
supply." The best food for the brain, as well as for 
the muscles, is good, wholesome, natural food, well 
selected, well prepared, well chewed, and well digested. 
The brain seldom suffers from lack of nourishment. 
Experiments have shown that even in starvation the 
brain suffers little if at all until the last stages, when the 
whole body has been reduced to the lowest possible 

Health Problems 

1. Write the menu of your meals for a day to find out from the 
food table the percentage of fats and carbohydrates and protein 
contained in each food. Are your meals well balanced or is there 
too much of one element in them f 

2. If you were repairing your house, would you buy more 
building material than you needed so that the surplus cluttered 
up your house ? Do you think it a wise thing to clog one's body 
with surplus building material .? 

3. Is it well to store up a large surplus of fuel in the body in the 
form of fat .'' 

4. Which is the more economical kind of coal to purchase — 
that which when burned leaves very little ashes or that which 
leaves great "clinkers" ? What fuel leaves clinkers in the body.? 
What kind leaves no ashes ? 

5. When is your appetite the keenest, — when you have been 
sitting still or studying quietly all day, or when you have been 
doing active muscular work ? 

6. Try Mr. Fletcher's method of eating food, masticating each 
morsel until it disappears of itself, without effort in swallowing. 


Do you eat as much food at a meal when you eat slowly in this 
way as when you bolt it down ? 

7. Give all the reasons you can for eating food slowly. 

8. Plan a simple dinner for three persons and find out the cost 
of each article mentioned. What kinds of food are the most 
expensive ? The least .? How about the cost of protein and of 
non-protein food ^ 

9. Which is digested the more easily — food which you like 
or food which you do not like .? Should a person ever force him- 
self to eat what he strongly dislikes ? 

10. It has been suggested that we might eat our food in the form 
of small tablets containing the right amount of fats, carbohydrates, 
and proteids. Why would this not be advisable .? 

11. Take a dry crust of bread and chew it thoroughly. How 
does it taste? Why has nature given us a "sweet tooth" ? 

12. When may candy be eaten in small amounts without harm 
to the body .'' Name some foods which contain natural sugar. 

13. What is said in this chapter about the need of the body for 
raw food .? What raw foods do you eat ? Tell how you prepare 
them for eating. 

14. Why does one sometimes have an attack of indigestion 
after eating a meal of doughnuts .? 

15. What is the trouble with a person when he has rickets.? 
scurvy .? 

Review Questions 

1. What are the uses of food in the body ? 

2. What food furnishes the building material of the body ? 

3. What are the fuel foods .? What do they furnish to the 
body ? 

4. Could one exist on any of these foods alone f Why ? 

5. In what form are the fuel foods stored in the body? 

6. Is proteid food ever used as fuel ? 

7. Does it make good fuel ? Why ? 


8. What harm is caused by taking an excess of proteid food ? 

9. What common foods contain a great deal of protein ? 

10. What common foods are largely carbohydrates and fats ? 

11. Can the amount of food needed by a person be exactly 
determined ? Why ? 

12. How does the amount of food needed vary with a person's 
occupation ? With the weather ? Why ? 

13. Describe the experiment made on soldiers of the United 
States army to test the value of a low-protein diet. 

14. What effect did this diet have on the athletes who tried it .? 

15. What is the original source of food ^ 

16. Is food material improved by being used by some other 
animal before man uses it .? Explain. 

17. What is taken from wheat in the process of making white 
flour.? Why is whole wheat flour better than white flour.? 

18. Name some condiments. What injury does their use 
cause .? What substitute is there for vinegar f 

19. In what way do baking powder and baking soda hinder 
digestion .? 

20. What is the importance of bulk in food .? 

21. How does cane sugar eaten in large quantities aiFect diges- 
tion ? 

22. Of what value are raw foods .? What care should be taken 
in their preparation .? 

23. Name three benefits from cooking food. 

24. Can particular foods be classed as "brain foods" or "muscle 
foods" ? 


How THE Body is Governed 

It is chiefly to his wonderful brain that man owes his 
infinite superiority over all other classes of animals. It 
is also the brain that gives man personality and charac- 
ter. A man's value, his ability to accomplish things, 
and therefore his usefulness, depend upon his brain. A 
boy may lose his leg or arm and yet have a useful life 
before him ; but when the brain is undeveloped 'pj^^ ^y^^^ 
or diseased, as in idiocy or insanity, the in- organ of 
dividual becomes useless and a burden to ° ^ 
society. All the other organs of the body are the serv- 
ants of the brain, which is the master organ. 

The wonderful structure and function of the brain 
have been discovered by the aid of many interesting 
experiments. Professor Horsley, in order to study the 
work of the different parts of the brain, made some 
experiments which have been of great value to physi- 
cians and surgeons in the treatment of diseases of the 
brain. He removed a small portion of the skull of a 
monkey, making a window through which he could see 
its brain, which very closely resembles the human 



brain. He found that when he touched a particular 
part of the exposed brain with a Uttle electrical instru- 
ment, the monkey made a grimace, — he had touched 
that part of the brain that controls the movements of 
the face. When he touched another spot, the monkey's 


The right hemisphere has corresponding divisions. 

arm was pulled up. Touching still another spot caused 
the leg to be drawn up. It was found that each group 
of muscles was controlled by a different part of the 
brain ; each had its own particular "center" controlling 
its movements. 

In this respect the brain is like a keyboard. You 
get special results according to the key that is struck, 



just as in a piano you get a different note from 
each different key. Or it has been compared to 
an electrical switchboard, connected with ma- j^ie " cen- 
chines»of various kinds. By touching one key ters " in 
an engine may be set in motion for grinding *^® ^^^°' 
corn ; another key starts an engine sawing wood ; 

W T R 


another may cause the lighting up of a town. The 
power in each case is the same, the difference in the 
result is due to the difference in the connections. 

The speech-controlling center is on the left side of the 
brain. If this part of the brain is injured, one loses 


the power of speech. He can think as well as ever but 
can not express his thoughts in language. We have 
also a word-seeing center, and if this is injured or dis- 
eased, "word-blindness" is the result. One suffering in 
this way can see objects as well as ever, because there is 
nothing wrong with the eye. He can see trees, houses, 
men, and can even see the marks on the page of a book, 
but the letters have no meaning to him, any more than 
Chinese characters would have to you. There is also 
a "word-hearing" center, with which we learn spoken 
language, and when this is diseased or injured "word- 
deafness" results. A person in this condition can hear 
music, whistles, the songs of birds, he can even hear the 
sound of words, but they convey no meaning to him, 
just as the noise of a Chinaman's talking would convey 
no meaning to you. We have also another center that 
has control of writing, and a person in whom this center 
is injured loses the ability to write. 

These few examples help us to understand something 
of the marvelous complexity of the human brain. 
You know that the more complex a machine is, the 
greater the possibility of something's going wrong with 
it. A textbook published not long ago mentions one 
hundred and seventy-six diseases of the nervous system. 
One reason why there is so large a number of such 
diseases is that the work of the nervous system is so 
varied. And the demands of modern life are so great 
that new diseases of the nervous system are appearing. 
Diseases of the brain are increasing at such a rapid rate 



that in some of the states at the present time one in 
every three hundred of the population is insane. 

The cortex, that is, the outer covering of the cerebrum 
or large brain, the part that contains what is known as 
the gray matter, is the seat of the intelli- ^^ 
gence, that is, of the mental faculties. Its of the 
surface is roughened, being made up of folds, cental 
or convolutions, and depressions which are 
called fissures. The purpose of this seems to be to 


Side-view of the brain showing the principal convolutions. 

increase the surface area of the brain. If the brain 
were spread out on a level surface, it would cover a much 
larger space than you might suppose. Some of these 
fissures are so deep that they divide the brain into lobes, 
— the frontal lobes in front, the parietal and temporal 


lobes on the sides, and the occipital lobes behind. 
Separating the frontal from the parietal lobes is what 
is called the fissure of Orlando, and about this fissure 
the motor area, the center that controls the muscles, 
is situated. The upper third of this area controls the 
movements of the legs and trunk ; the middle third, 
the movements of the arms ; and the lower third, the 
movements of the face and tongue. You will remem- 
ber that the right side of the body is controlled by 
the left side of the brain, and vice versa. When, 
therefore, there is injury to the right side of the brain, 
the paralysis that results is on the left side of the 

It takes about one tenth of a second to see a card 
when it is suddenly put before the eye and to indicate. 
Action and by touching an electric button, that you have 
reaction. gggn it. It takes about the same time to 
hear a sound or to feel the prick of a pin and to indi- 
cate it in the same way. We shall have occasion to 
notice, as we go on, some of the things that influence 
the time it takes to act when one hears, sees, or feels a 

Experiments have shown that it takes longer to act 
with the foot than with the hand, and longer still 
with the whole body, as in the starting of a race. The 
"reaction" time is shorter when the attention is held 
upon the signal to be given. When you watch the 
starting of a race you notice how intensely the racers 
concentrate their attention upon the signal to be given. 



They seem to be listening with their whole bodies, 
with every muscle alert to respond. They know that 
the closer the attention, the quicker start they are 
likely to make. 

These things that we have been considering help us 
to see how all the work of the body, depending as it does 

Note how these racers concentrate their attention so they can react 
quickly upon the starting signal. 

upon the nervous system, will be influenced by any- 
thing that affects the nerves. Not only can one whose 
brain is clouded or whose nerves are benumbed by 
poisons circulating in the blood, not think clearly, but 
all the work of the body is more or less hindered. Such 
a person can not use his will power as he should to make 
quick decisions and to carry them out promptly ; 


moreover, his judgment will be clouded, and he will be 
likely to make mistakes. 

Think of the many muscular movements involved in 
turning a somersault. If the acrobat or athlete had to 
think of each consecutive movement, he would 
probably land with a broken neck instead of 
in safety on his feet. In the beginning, of course, he 
has to do this, but then care is taken to have a soft 
landing place or to direct the motion with the teacher's 
arm, and so prevent injury. Yet when any form of 
exercise has been thoroughly learned and practiced, all 
that is necessary is for the first step to be taken, and all 
the rest will follow in their natural order without 
thought. One who has mastered the art of swimming, 
although he may for years be deprived of the opportu- 
nity to swim and may even think he has quite forgotten 
the movements, when he finds himself in the water can 
swim easily without any thought of the movements 

The story is told of an old soldier who, having retired 
from the army and taken up another occupation, was 
walking along to his work carrying his dinner pail 
when some one suddenly called out to him the signal 
for standing "at attention." Instantly the dinner pail 
was dropped and the body was drawn up with the heels 
together and the arms straightened at the sides in the 
attitude of attention. The habit worked before the 
mind had time to prevent it. 

We see, then, that what we at first do knowingly, 


will, if we do it often enough, be done for us in the same 
way without our thinking about it, without our choice, 
and even in spite of our will power. This shows us the 
importance of doing things from the start in the right or 
the best way, so that they will not for the rest of our 
lives keep "doing themselves" in the wrong way, A 
psychologist has said that we are all mere "bundles 
of habits." That is, our character is the sum of our 
habits, physical, mental, and moral. Was he right ? 

In the learning of any new act, the mind must be 
kept on the details of the work, as in typewriting and 
piano-playing. As a general thing, the progress 
made will be in proportion to the concentration fluence of 
of the mind on the work. Some one has said the mind 

on the 

that "almost any one can do any thing that he °° *^® 

desires to do if he desires it strongly enough 

and sticks to it long enough to whip the muscles into 

the habit of carrying out the wish." 

The influence of the mind over the muscles has been 
strikingly shown in some Yale experiments, which 
showed that men who even onl}^ watched others exer- 
cise, without taking part themselves, increased the 
size and strength of the muscles used by the others. 
When one thinks of an action, the muscles at once 
begin to contract as though to perform it. If you are 
greatly interested in a contest of any kind, and espe- 
cially if a friend of 3^ours is taking part, how you will 
work with him ! When he throws the ball your own 


hands start working. When the high jump is made you 
seem to lift your own feet. It is said that among the 
enthusiastic throngs at football matches it is not un- 
common for some one in the crowd to receive a violent 
kick from an onlooker behind him, when one of the 
players is kicking the ball. 

In view of these facts, what effect do you think that 
interest and enthusiasm in your work would be likely 
to have upon your progress ? 

Dr. Mosso, an Italian, invented a machine called an 

ergograph. He used this for the purpose of testing the 

effects of nerve fatigue on the muscles. The 

The effects 

of ner/e ergograph held the hand and wrist firm, leav- 

fatigue on ing the middle finger free for use. To this 

® , finger was fastened a string which at the other 

muscles. ° ° 

end was attached to a six and a half pound 
weight. The finger had to raise this weight every two 
seconds and continue this as long as possible. For 
every pull made by the finger, a pencil attached to the 
string drew a separate line. These marks showed the 
height to which the weight was raised as well as the 
number of times it was raised. Dr. Mosso made 
numerous tests under all sorts of conditions, and one 
of the things he discovered was that the subjects tested 
were not able to lift the weight nearly so many times 
after they had been doing hard brain work for a long 
time. For instance, a professor in the University of 
Turin, to which Professor Mosso belonged, was tested 
one afternoon just before giving oral examinations to 



his pupils, and again when the examinations were over, 
after three and one half hours of mental effort. Al- 
though he had done no work with his hands during this 
time, the muscular power of his finger was greatly 
decreased. All of the tests made showed that hard 
brain work affects the muscles and lessens their power 
for work. Can you think of any reasons why this 
should be so ^ The muscles are controlled by the 
nerves and, when the nerves are exhausted, they can 
not get so much work out of the muscles. In view of 
this, do you think it is a good thing to try to do hard 
muscular work or to take vigorous exercise when you 
have been doing hard brain work for a long time ^ 

Dr. Mosso also wanted to find out, on the other hand, 
the effects of muscular fatigue on the brain. He did 
this by means of experiments with birds. He ^j^^ ^^ ^^^ 
had some trained pigeons, some of which he ofmuscuiar 
took to a distant city and set free. When they fatigue on 
arrived home he examined their brains. He 
found that while the brains of the pigeons which had 
remained at home were full of red blood, the brains of 
the exhausted pigeons were quite pale, as though they 
contained no blood. Where had the blood gone ^ An 
examination of the wing muscles showed that they 
were much darker color then those of the pigeons which 
had been resting, and that all the blood vessels in them 
were congested with blood. 

When there is an increased supply of blood to any 
part of the body there is not, of course, an actual in- 


crease in the amount of blood in the body, but the blood 
is withdrawn from some other part where it is not so 
much needed at the time. During severe muscular 
work, the blood is drawn to the working muscles and 
the supply to the brain is lessened. Do you think that 
such a time is a good time to try to do hard brain work ^ 

It is important also to know that after eating there is 
an increased blood supply to the digestive organs, which 
lessens the supply to the brain. This explains the 
mental dullness and drowsiness which are a common 
experience with some people after dinner, especially 
those who are inclined to eat too much. Do you think 
this is a good time to try to draw an extra supply to the 
brain for mental work ? 

Can you think of any other way in which the brain 
and nerves are affected by muscular work .? Recall 
what you have learned about the fatigue poisons formed 
in the muscles and their effects upon the whole body. 
When a person feels tired it is because he is poisoned by 
his own waste products. But the body is so marvel- 
ously constructed that it is able to purify itself, like a 
running stream, by means of the circulation of the blood. 
Rest gives opportunity for this purifying process, and 
so counteracts or overcomes fatigue. 

All these things show us that what is needed after 
hard work of any kind, either muscular or mental, is 
rest. Rest is needed (i) to equalize the circulation of 
the blood, (2) to give time for the washing out of the 
fatigue poisons, and (3) to give the nerve cells a chance 


to recover, before new work is undertaken. Both 
mental and muscular exertion are beneficial and not 
harmful, if only the proper balance is kept between work 
and rest. A period of work needs a corresponding 
period of rest. A. short period of work calls for only a 
short period of rest, but when the working periods are 
longer the resting periods need to be longer also. 
Experiments with bricklayers and other workmen 
recently showed that more work was actually accom- 
plished when the day was divided up into short periods 
of work and rest than when the whole day was spent 
in work. Why, do you think ^ 

There is something else besides rest which greatly 
assists the body in purifying itself and so overcoming 
fatigue. One of the professors in the Turin University 
where Dr. Mosso made his experiments tested his finger 
with the ergograph one day, and the next day he tested 
it again after massaging the finger thoroughly for 
three minutes. This experiment, many times repeated, 
showed that the muscles were able to do twice as much 
work after massage as they were capable of before it. 
One day he tested his finger after a ten-mile walk and 
found that he was able to do only one quarter as much 
work with it as before he started. But when his hands 
and arms had been massaged for ten minutes, he could 
do as much as before he went for the walk. He esti- 
mated that two hours of rest would have been necessary 
to accomplish this result ; so massage had done for him 
in this respect in ten minutes what rest would have 


done in two hours. Massage benefits the nervous 
system by increasing the circulation of the blood and 
hastening the removal of the toxins or poisons. 

Health Problems 

1. Have you ever seen the brains of a calf or other animal.? 
Describe them. 

2. Find out how a telephone switchboard operates, and tell 
how the working of the brain may be compared to it. 

3. Do you know any persons who are partially paralyzed t 
What has caused their condition ? 

4. Have you been at the fire station when an alarm of fire came 
in .? How did the firemen and even the horses respond to the 
signal ? What has made them so prompt f 

5. How long do you think it takes you to withdraw your hand 
when you touch something very hot .? Does your foot respond 
as quickly .? Why ^ 

6. Watch a young child who is learning to write. Describe 
his appearance and his actions. What kind of muscular action 
is he performing I Is it the same with the teacher who has had 
long practice .? Explain. 

7. Make a list of actions which were once voluntary for you 
and which have become automatic, or habitual. Explain how 
such changes are made. 

8. Would a person who took gymnastic exercises unwillingly 
derive as much benefit as a person who took them with interest 
and enthusiasm .? Why .? 

9. When a person is ill because of poisons circulating in his 
body, how does his brain act .'' Does he think quickly and respond 
readily .? Why ? Mention a case to illustrate this. 

10. Do you find it as easy to study in the evening as in the 
morning ? Why ? Do you think children can make as much 
progress at night school as at day school ? Why .? 


II. Can you mention other ways of resting the body besides 
sleeping ? 

Review Questions 

1. Why is the brain called the "master organ" ? 

2. Have you ever known any one whose mind was diseased ? 
How did he act ? 

3. Tell about the experiment with the monkey's brain. 

4. How is voluntary movement of the body caused ? 

5. Describe the brain. 

6. What is meant by reaction ? How quickly does the average 
person react to a signal } 

7. What things influence the length of reaction time .? What 
effect have poisons circulating in the blood upon this ? 

8. What is reflex action .? Give examples. 

9. What is the importance of forming good habits ? 

10. How were the muscles of the men at Yale who simply 
watched some gymnastic exercises with interest aff^ected .? 

11. Of what importance is one's mental attitude in any work.? 
Give examples of this. 

12. Describe Dr. Mosso's experiment to show the effects of 
nerve fatigue on the muscles. 

13. Why should tired nerves mean lessened muscular power.? 

14. When a person has been doing very hard brain work, 
should he attempt to do muscular work .? Why ? 

15. What was noticed in the brains of the pigeons who had 
been flying all day ? 

16. What does this prove about the effect of tired muscles on 
brain work .? 

17. Why is one dull and drowsy after a heavy meal .? Should 
one study immediately after a meal .? 

18. What is the real cause of weariness .? 

19. What three things does rest do for the body .? 

20. Of what value is massage .? Why .? 


The Mental Faculties 

We have seen that muscles and nerves that remain 
Inactive shrink and lose their strength. In the same 
way an idle brain becomes less and less capable of good 
sound work, which means thinking. It frequently hap- 
pens that students of only moderate talents become 
by means of mental labor, men of power, while highly 
gifted young men who cease to exercise the brain and 
spend their time in idleness become narrow-minded 
and often stupid. Mental work preserves and 
strengthens the brain instead of wearing it out. This 
is shown by the fact that the great thinkers and brain 
workers of the world usually reach advanced age with 
their mental faculties clear and strong, while those 
whose brains have had little exercise are much more 
likely to become feeble-minded in old age. 

To achieve anything worth while in study one must 
concentrate upon the thing to be understood or learned, 
Attention ^^^ everything not connected with the task 
and in hand must be shut out of the mind so far 

interest. ^^ possible. In hydraulic mining the flow of 
water used would be worthless if spread out in fine 
spray over the face of the hill to be washed down. But 




concentrated in a small stream its power is very great, 
tearing away earth and rock, and overcoming all 
obstacles. So with the mind : much more is accom- 
plished when one gains control of his whole mental 
force and directs it upon the task before him. 

How much more clearly a thing is impressed upon the 
mind when the attention is directed to it is shown in 

In hydraulic mining, hills can be washed away, because of the force 


what are called "puzzle pictures." You see, for in- 
stance, a landscape with a huntsman in it, and you are 
told to "find the fox." When you first look at the pic- 
ture the landscape and the hunter stand out clear and 
distinct, but the fox is nowhere to be seen. But when 
you have discovered the fox it seems to stand out so 
distinctly that you wonder you did not see it at once. 
Besides this, the picture which before stood out so 



clearly now drops into the background and is hardly 
noticeable while your attention is directed to the fox. 
Or you may get the same effect in a different way 
by fixing your attention upon one instrument in 

an orchestra. 
That one isthen 
heard clearly 
and distinctly 
and seems to 
stand out from 
all the rest. 

tion of the 
mind on one 
thing shuts out 
other things. 
The great 
thinkers of the 
world have pos- 
sessed in a high 
degree this 
power of con- 
centration, — 
of shutting out 
of their minds everything but the subject of study. 
In Sir Isaac Newton, who greatly enriched the world 
by his wonderful discoveries, this power of concen- 
tration was so great that he often did not know 
whether he had dined or not. 

This pupil knows how to concentrate her mind 
ON her work, and she never fails. 


What is it that holds the attention in this way ? It is 
interest. You know that v/hen you are reading a story 
that greatly interests you, you become so absorbed in it 
that you are quite unaware of all that is taking place 
around you. There is never any difficulty in getting 
any one to pay attention to a thing that interests him. 
Students sometimes find it difficult to fix their atten- 
tion on their studies because they are more interested 
in the things that are taking place around them. 
What do you think is likely to be the result if the 
student permits picture after picture of everything that 
takes place within the range of his eyes and ears to 
be impressed upon his mind .? 

The efi^ect of certain things in preventing concentra- 
tion of attention has been determined by means of 
experiments. Noise or confusion in the room in which 
the tests were being made was a source of distraction. 
Even the playing of a musical instrument in the room 
was found to have this effect. When one is weary it is 
much more difficult to fix the attention, and conse- 
quently the mental image is not so clear, and whatever 
one is learning is much more likely to be forgotten 
under such conditions. 

Thousands of people fall into evil ways simply for 
want of wholesome mental occupation. An unoccupied 
mind is like a stagnant pool, the water of which Mental 
grows slimy and impure. Turn a lively brook activity a 
into a pond covered with green slime and ^^ ^^"^ ' 
send the water dancing over the pebbles, whirling in 


a thousand eddies and dashing over little waterfalls, 
and soon it becomes pure. If you wish to be free from 
unwholesome thoughts and to develop a character that 
will prompt to good and useful acts, fill the mind with 
useful truths and facts and keep it occupied. A boy 
who had passed through several reform schools and 
could not be retained in any because of his evil ways 
was about to be sent as a hopeless case to the asylum 
for the criminally insane. The drawing master in the 
school in which he then was, noticed that be began to 
show an interest in drawing, so he asked the authorities 
to wait a little while and see what this interest would 
do for the boy. With the special help of the master 
the boy made rapid progress and concentrated his mind 
on becoming an artist. From that time there was 
no further trouble with him, and he developed into a 
useful citizen. 

In order to test the effects of thinking upon the 
circulation of the blood. Dr. Mosso invented a machine 
Th ff with a balancing table or plank, by means of 
of thinking which he could test the weight of the brain 
on the under different conditions. When a person 
lying on this table begins to think hard the 
head part dips down a little, showing that the head has 
become heavier. The harder he thinks, as for instance 
in working out a difficult mathematical problem, the 
heavier his brain becomes. What do you think is the 
reason for this .? You remember what takes place in a 
working muscle ; there is an increased amount of blood 


sent to it to supply the energy for the work. The same 
thing takes place in the brain. What should you expect 
to be the position of the balancing board when the 
person lying on it is asleep ^ The blood then recedes 
from the brain, and the head, becoming lighter, goes 
up and the feet go down. 

Since the brain and nerves get all their energy, their 
working power, from the blood, you can see that the 
quality of the brain work must depend in some 
degree upon the quality of the blood. Any- j^°^qs and 
thing that impoverishes the blood or makes it brain de- 
impure will affect the nervous system and p®°^ J^p^^ 

. . . . "^ good blood. 

make it impossible for the brain to do the best 
work of which it is capable. Alcohol and tobacco, and 
the toxins or poisons formed in the body when present 
in the blood in excess, may have an irritating or paralyz- 
ing effect upon the nerve cells. This explains the 
irritability, the despondency, the indecision, and 
even the moral depravity which are sometimes de- 
veloped in persons whom one would least expect to 
exhibit such bad traits. Also eating too much and 
indigestion may produce giddiness, inability to think, 
and mental confusion. 

A distinguished man of science has said : "When we 
think, it is not alone the mind that thinks, it is the 
whole man, and the process begins with the body. 
. . . The bodily condition strikes through and shows it- 
self in the quality of the thought. The body lies at 
the base of success in all respects." 



When we speak of the emotions, we generally refer 
to joy, courage, anger, fear, sorrow, and so on. The 
The emo- influence of these states of mind may be seen 
tions and UDOU our own bodies at almost any moment. 

their efifects _^ ., , i r 1 

upon the ^ ^^ Can easily see that each oi the emotions 
body. can be at once detected by its physical signs. 

If, for instance, you see a child laugh and clap his 

hands and skip about, you 
know that something has oc- 
curred to make him happy 
or joyful. 

Happiness benefits all the 
functions of the body by its 
influence upon the nerve cen- 
ters that control the body. 
You know already of the 
effects of a happy state of 
mind upon the digestive or- 
gans, — how it increases the 
secretion of the digestive 
juices and helps along the 
work of digestion. The nerves 
that control the small blood 
vessels are affected in such a 
way that they cause the ves- 
sels to expand so that the blood may flow easily 
through them. Happiness also affects the nerves that 
control the heart so that it beats faster and sends the 
blood rapidly through the expanded vessels. This 



results in increased nourishment to all the tissues. 
We often say that fat people are jovial, but perhaps we 
ought to reverse this and say that jovial people are fat ; 
at any rate, they are more likely to be so than those 
who are unhappy. The brain also shares in the bene- 
fits of the increased allowance of blood, thus producing 
a flow of thought and of ideas and a quickness to form 
decisions and to carry them out. 

A happy person feels light and springy and has a 
desire for motion, and this is why the happy child 
dances and claps its hands. A happy person has, if 
other things are equal, more endurance than an un- 
happy one. 

"A merry heart goes all the way; 
A sad one tires in half a day." 

Laughter, as you might guess, has a distinct health 
value. It expands the chest and forces out the bad 
air from the least-used air cells at the apex of the lungs. 
It is also a healthful tonic for the stomach and liver, 
and so it aids digestion. It increases the circulation 
and so produces warmth. 

You see that all the physical effects of happiness are 
healthful. So the things that help to make one happy, 
— love, trust, useful and congenial work, pleasant 
surroundings and associations, a contented mind, and 
such things, — are a help to the body. "A merry 
heart doeth good like a medicine." 

The physical effects of sorrow or depression of mind 


are, as we should expect, exactly the opposite to those 
of happiness. Its outward signs we see in the 
^j^^^ dull countenance and the slow movements 

weaken the which are due to its effects upon the muscular 
^h^^ ^^d system. The free action of the diaphragm 
and the expansion of the chest are interfered 
with, as shown by the frequent sighing. The secretions 
are diminished, and this interferes with digestion. 
The heart beats slower and the blood does not circulate 
so well. The diminished blood supply to the brain 
shows itself in mental dullness and lassitude and in a 
lack of desire to do any mental work. 

The physical signs of fear or terror are very apparent. 
The face is pale and the skin cold, because the blood is 
driven away from it by the contraction of the blood 
vessels in the skin. The sudden emptying of the skin 
of its blood is thought to be the cause of the rapid 
whitening or loss of hair as a result of extreme fright. 
An Italian physiologist, Mantegazza, vouches for the 
fact that the celebrated lion tamer, Faime, lost his hair 
the night following a struggle for life with a lion in its 
cage. The effects of fear upon the voluntary muscles 
may be such as completely to paralyze one and make 
him incapable of speech or motion. While the first 
effect of fear is usually increased activity of the heart, 
or palpitation, overwhelming terror seems to be able 
to stop the heart and so to produce sudden death. 
The secretions seem to be wholly arrested in a terrified 
person so that the mouth becomes dry and the tongue 


cleaves to the palate. Fear is capable of producing 
long-continued and even incurable maladies. What do 
you think about deliberately frightening people as a 

An angry cat affords a striking example of the effects 
of anger or rage upon the body. Her back is elevated 
and every hair stands on end, until she seems to have 
swelled to twice her size. The effects of anger are just 
as apparent in the human being, though they are of a 
different nature. There is a rush of blood to the skin 
with redness and heat. The offended person "burns 
with anger," his "blood boils," we say, and he needs 
to "cool his wrath." The mucous membrane is so 
charged with blood that the eyes are red, and in some 
cases there is bleeding from the nose in a fit of passion. 
The blood vessels are enlarged, as can be seen in the 
neck and hands. Anger also expresses itself in strong 
and rapid motion, but the movements are very irregu- 
lar. One may in these violent movements do himself 
injury without being aware of it. He may with no 
sensation of pain tear his hair or bite his lips until 
they bleed. In a desperate fight the combatants are 
sometimes unaware of injuries received, due to the 
abnormal condition of the nervous system. 

It is particularly injurious to eat while angry. An 
angry person usually has no appetite. That rage has a 
poisonous effect upon the system is shown in the fact 
often quoted that after a violent fit of anger in a nursing 
mother the baby may go into convulsions, having been 


poisoned by the milk. The babe is made sick because 
the milk is poisoned. The poison passes into the milk 
from the blood. The brain and every other organ is 
bathed with poisoned blood. So when a person be- 
comes angry, he is poisoned. A frequent repetition of 
attacks of anger may lead to hardening of the arteries 
and high blood pressure. 

You can now see the importance of cultivating for 
one's own sake as well as for the sake of others, the 
helpful emotions, — cheerfulness, contentment, cour- 
age and good temper, avoiding as far as possible the 
unhealthful states, — depression, anxiety, fear, anger, 
and hatred. This is just as important a law of health as 
any other that we have studied. 

Health Problems 

1. What would happen to a muscle if it were never used .? 
What would happen to certain parts of the brain if they were 
never used ? 

2. In what kind of place do you like best to study ? Why are 
whispering and making other noises forbidden in most schools ? 

3. Have you ever noticed how hard it is to study on a blustery 
day when the wind roars outside and the shades rattle within ? 
Why is this .? 

4. What do you mean by concentration ? Under what , con- 
ditions can you concentrate most easily ? 

5. Perhaps you have noticed that you find it difficult to add 
long columns of figures if there are many people talking or moving 
about in the room ; yet you have seen bookkeepers in busy, noisy 
offices adding readily and correctly without trouble. Explain 
how they can do this. 

6. Describe Professor Mosso's method of weighing the effects 


of work with the brain. What time of the day do you think your 
brain would be the heaviest ? When the hghtest ? 

7. Do you know any one who constantly takes poisons into his 
system or who habitually eats too much ? Has he a happy dis- 
position ? A powerful mind ? 

8. Describe a person who is terrified. Should children ever be 
frightened as a joke or as a way to "make them mind" t 

9. Describe a person when he is very angry. Describe him 
when he is happy. 

10. Do you think one should let his thoughts dwell on illness 
and sorrow, or trv to keep his mind on happiness and success ? 

Review Questions 

1. What is the best way to strengthen the mind .? 

2. W^hat happens to even a brilliant mind that is not exercised ? 

3. Why is careless or indifferent study of no value .? 

4. What is meant by cramming for an examination .? Is it a 
good practice .? Why .? 

5. Explain the term concentration. Of what value is concen- 
tration in study .? 

6. Do you learn things in which you are interested more easily 
than things in which you are not .? Why : 

7. What effect does noise and confusion have upon the mind ? 

8. Why are busy, hard-working people seldom vicious ? 

9. Why is a person irritable and dull when his blood is impure ? 

10. Why does the brain weigh more when one is doing hard 
thinking than when he is asleep .? 

11. Explain the statement that "the body lies at the base of 

12. What is the effect of sorrow on the body? of happiness.? 
of fear .? of anger .? 

13. Of what value is laughter? 

14. What is said of the practice of angering or frightening a 
person "for the fun of it" ? 

Deceiving the Nerves and the Mind 

For centuries multitudes of people were accustomed 
to take alcohol under the impression that it increased 
their working capacity. They felt as though they were 
able to do more and better work after taking it. We 
have now come, however, to an age of science when 
people are no longer content with judging by feeling 
or appearance. In all departments of life exact knowl- 
edge, gained by means of accurate tests and experiments, 
is being substituted for mere guesswork. One of the 
things that has been most carefully and thoroughly 
tested by numerous scientists is the effect of alcohol 
upon the tissues of the body, and especially upon its 
efficiency. Is alcohol a help or a hindrance to body 
and mind ^ 

One of the experimenters as to the effects of alcohol 
was Dr. Hodge. You already know something about 
Lessening the four dogs that were the subjects of his ex- 
courage, periments. He came to the conclusion that 
and work- alcohol has the effect of destroying courage, 
ing power, as Well as lessening ambition and working 
capacity. Dr. Hodge says further that "In setting 


type, adding figures, learning by rote, or doing any fine 
mechanical work, the man under the influence of even 
small doses of alcohol feels that he is working easily 
and rapidly — because his sense of fatigue and difficulty 
is paralyzed ; but when measured and tested with 
scientific accuracy, his performances are always found 
to be slower and poorer in quality then when no alcohol 
is taken." What influence would such an effect be 
likely to have upon a person's career ? 

That alcohol has the same effect upon human beings 
as upon dogs in destroying energy and ambition, the 
characteristics that make for success, is shown in the 
observations of a German nerve specialist. Dr. Hugo 
Hoppe. Speaking of the "moderate" use of beer he 
says : "Thousands and tens of thousands who take 
their daily pint are rendered stupid, silly, and dissolute 
by beer. They will probably still transact regularly 
the daily business or routine of office to which they have 
become accustomed, but without special exertion, 
half automatically, like machines. For any further 
exertion, however, for improvement or for more pro- 
ductive activity, they lack the desire, the initiative, 
the energy." Do you think that such "machines" 
are likely to make much advancement .? A lawyer who 
became President of the United States, William H. Taft, 
once said : "He who drinks is deliberately disqualifying 
himself for advancement. I refuse to take such a risk. 
I do not drink." 

That alcohol does not increase but instead lessens 


working power was observed years ago by Sir J. Ross, 
., ^ , when he commanded an expedition to the Arc- 

Alconol . . . ^ 

lessens tic regions. He noticed that he was able to 
working stand the cold better than the officers or crew, 
although he was twenty years older than any 
of them, and he put this down to the fact that they 
used spirits and tobacco while he did not. After a time 
they had to abandon the ship and leave behind all the 
wines and spirits. Then they had, as he said, "the 
most irresistible proof of the value of abstinence. It 
was remarkable how much stronger and more able the 
men were to do their work when they had nothing but 
water to drink." 

The same thing is seen in warm climates as well as 
in cold. Sven Hedin, the Asiatic explorer, says: '*In 
a caravan a drop of wine or brandy should not be 
found. To be dependent on these things is a curse 
and especially objectionable on a journey which de- 
mands great exertion. The people, whether inside or 
outside the borders of civilization, who abstain from 
alcohol, are the most competent and effective workers^ 

In giving evidence before the Inter-departmental 
Committee on Physical Deterioration, Dr. Robert 
Jones said that alcohol "especially affects the motor 
system, and creates an enormous loss to the commu- 
nity by destroying the productiveness of the skilled crafts- 
man.'" To determine the effects of alcohol in this 
respect Dr. Aschaffenburg carried on some experiments 
with skilled typesetters. One day they worked as 


fast as they could for fifteen minutes and a record was 
made of the amount of work done. The next day they 
were given a httle more than an ounce of alcohol a 
quarter of an hour before beginning work. Three out 
of the four men tested did less work after taking the 
alcohol than on the previous day. There was a differ- 
ence of about ten per cent in the amount done. This 
would mean, of course, that they would earn ten per 
cent less on days when even such a small quantity of 
alcohol was taken, since their work was paid for by 

A strange thing about this experiment was that the 
men actually felt able to do more, and thought they were 
doing more, on the days when they had taken 
alcohol, when the actual fact was that they hoi affects 
did considerably less. This shows us the ^® J^^s- 
deceiving effect of alcohol upon the mind. 
The powers by which judgments are formed are dead- 
ened, so that one is no longer capable of forming a correct 
opinion of his own acts. On this point Professor Sims 
Woodhead, of Cambridge University, says: "A man 
under the influence of small quantities of alcohol has no 
right to believe his own senses. He cannot trust them to 
give him correct facts, and he cannot rely upon his 
judgment for the interpretation of facts." Is such a 
man fit to hold a reliable position that calls for sound 
judgment } 

Another thing noticeable in the experiment with the 
typesetters was that on the alcohol days they made 


twenty-five per cent more mistakes than they did on the 
other days, a result which shows the effects of alcohol 
upon the ability to work accurately. 

Some very important experiments on alcohol have 
been made by German investigators. In these tests 
Some con- ^^^ Subject placed each hand upon a telegraph 
elusive ex- key, and one key or the other must be pressed 
penments. pj-Qmptly according as he saw a red or a white 
light. The subject had first to recognize the color of 
the light, then recall which hand was to act in response 
to that color, and then he had to act as promptly as 
possible. You can see that the conditions are much the 
same as when a locomotive engineer sees an unexpected 
signal light. When a glass of beer was drunk by the 
subject before these tests were made, "on the average 
the keys were released more rapidly than before the 
alcohol was taken, but the wrong key was much more 
frequently released than under normal conditions." 

A person under the influence of alcohol is likely to 
perform rash and hasty actions because the capacity 
to think clearly and to judge correctly is dulled or 
deadened. By paralyzing the higher centers of the 
brain alcohol allows a man to say and do things that 
his good judgment would prevent him from doing. 

Ex-President Eliot of Harvard University tells the 
following little story showing the effects of alcohol on 
the quickness of action : "I had occasion to know about 
the time reaction of a famous pugilist whose habitual 
residence was not far from this spot. He was expecting 


to fight in a city at some distance from Boston, The 
appointment was made, but he had been on a succes- 
sion of sprees ; his trainer could not control him ; 
he was under the influence of alcohol a great part of the 
time. He was brought to Cambridge and his time 
reaction was tested. It was very slow. Now, this 
man had always been famous for the quickness of his 
time reaction. A pugilist has need to have a very short 
time reaction. He must see by the motion of his 
opponent's fist just where he is going to strike and put 
his own arm in the way quickly. A slow time reaction 
is fatal to a pugilist or fencer or runner. The effect of 
alcohol on the time reaction of the human being has 
been studied carefully, tested in hundreds of thousands 
of cases, and there is no question about the ill-eff^ect of 
alcohol even in very moderate doses on the time reac- 
tion. That means that alcohol in very moderate 
doses diminishes the efficiency of the working man in 
most instances, makes him incapable of doing his best 
in the work of the day." 

How long the effects of alcohol upon the working ca- 
pacity last was shown by some experiments by Professor 
Furer. A person was tested for several days, at the 
same hour each day, as to reaction time, the association 
of ideas, the ability to memorize, and facility in adding. 
He was then allowed to drink two liters of beer in the 
course of a day. Outwardly this had no effect upon 
him, but the tests showed very marked efi^ects in every 
particular. There was disturbance of all his faculties, 


more difficulty in memorizing, and lessened facility in 
adding. These effects were seen not only on that day, 
but on succeeding days as well. It was not until the 
third day that the tests showed a complete restora- 
tion, although the subject himself felt no ill effects. 

Since the effects of alcohol continue for a day or two 
after the day on which it is taken, what do you think 
must be the effect if it is taken every day ? There is, 
of course, a piling up of its effects upon the mental 
powers and the working capacity. This was shown by 
some tests made by Dr. Emil Krapelin, Professor of 
Mental Diseases in the University of Munich. He 
tested some of the students without alcohol for six 
days, half an hour each day, as to their ability to add up 
figures. Then for twelve successive days alcohol was 
given to them. It was found that as a result of this 
their speed gradually lessened. They worked more and 
more slowly, until by the thirteenth day the working 
capacity of their minds was lessened by from twenty- 
five to forty per cent. That is, in some cases it was only 
a little more than half what it was when no alcohol 
was taken. But as soon as the students stopped taking 
alcohol, their work began to improve. Dr. Krapelin 
conducted a large number of very carefully planned 
experiments, making them over dozens of times so 
that his conclusions were determined with great cer- 
tainty. In each case under the influence of alcohol 
the individual did less and poorer work. Although 
curiously enough in his half-intoxicated condition he 


thought he was turning out more and better work than 

In view of all these things it would certainly be 
surprising if employers did not make a distinction 
between those who use alcohol and those who „ , 


do not, and much prefer to employ the latter, who use 
Alcohol is becoming more and more of a handi- alcohol not 

, , . . . wanted. 

cap to a man in getting and keeping a position, 
as its effects upon the working capacity are becoming 
more widely known. Employers know that the man 
who dulls his brain and undermines his health by 
alcohol will do less work and be more likely to make 
mistakes than the man who does not drink. They 
dare not trust their business to such a man. Several 
years ago the United States Department of Labor found 
that already ninety per cent of railroads, seventy-nine 
per cent of manufactories, eighty-eight per cent of 
trades, and seventy-two per cent of farmers, discrimi- 
nate against employees who use intoxicating liquor. 

Marshall Field and Co., of Chicago, not long ago 
expressed what is the attitude of most large business 
firms on this question, when they said, "Even though 
a man should apply for a position whose ability and 
other all-round qualifications would seem to fit him 
for the place, if we knew or discovered that he was 
a drinking man, we should decline to consider his 
application. Any man in our employ who acquires 
the habit of drink, even though moderately, is to a 
certain extent marked down in our estimation, and 


unless we can remove from him this serious fault, and 
show him his error, we feel compelled to do without 
his services." 

In these days a clerk, an engineer, a coachman, or 
even a gardener whose breath smells of alcohol or who 
is seen dropping into a saloon stands a good chance of 
losing his position. 

A wealthy factory owner was endeavoring to close 
a saloon opposite his factory. The governor of the 
state asked him what was his reason for doing this. 
The reply was, "Governor, it's not a moral standard 
with me at all ; it's economic. My men are worth 
fifty per cent more to me on Monday morning if that 
saloon is closed over Sunday." 

Some tests have been made in Sweden with picked 
marksmen taken from among the soldiers, to find out 
if alcohol had any effect in increasing or de- 
aicohoi on creasing their ability to shoot. It was found 
marksman- ^Yy^tX in every instance the men did their best 
work — quickest firing and best hitting — 
when they had had no alcohol for several days. In 
his report the staff-surgeon said: "When under 
alcohol the result was thirty per cent less hits in quick 
fire, and the men always thought they were shooting 
faster, whilst actually they shot much more slowly." 

This work especially demands steadiness of nerve, 
and alcohol, as you know, has a marked effect upon 
the nervous system. This is doubtless the reason 
why Emperor William of Germany has done so much 


to discourage the use of it in his army and navy. When 
addressing the naval cadets in 191 1 he said: "The 
next war and the next battle will demand sound nerves 
on your part. They will be decided by nerves. But 
these are undermined and endangered from youth 
upwards by indulgence in alcohol. . . . The nation 
which takes the smallest quantity of alcohol will win 
the battles of the future." 

That the views expressed by Emperor William were 
deep convictions, the result of a careful and profound 
study of the question, is clearly shown by the fact that 
in the present great European war, alcohol is practically 
excluded. Until very recent times, the daily rations of 
the soldier included a certain quantity of rum or whisky. 
It was supposed to be necessary to fortify him against 
fatigue and hardships and to aid him on his tedious 
marches and especially to give him courage in battle. 
But now it is so well proven that alcohol can do none 
of these things, but does the very opposite instead, that 
alcohol not only is no longer served to soldiers in their 
rations, but every pains is taken to prevent soldiers 
from getting it. 

In Russia, the manufacture and sale of alcohol is a 
government monopoly. At the outbreak of the war, 
the czar of Russia issued an edict prohibiting the 
manufacture or sale of vodka, the national alcoholic 
beverage, and so the whole Russian people including 
the army at once became a nation of abstainers. In 
France, the sale of absinthe has been stopped. England 


supplies no alcohol to her soldiers and the government 
requests citizens not to "treat" soldiers when visiting 
their friends. The emperor of Germany sets his soldiers 
an example of total abstinence and insists that his sol- 
diers must be sober. Some years ago the sale of liquor 
in the canteens of the United States army was pro- 
hibited and more recently an order was issued by the 
secretary of the navy, Mr. Josephus Daniels, exclud- 
ing all alcoholic beverages from battleships and all 
other naval vessels. The fact that the present Euro- 
pean war, the greatest military struggle the world has 
ever seen, is being fought without alcohol is the greatest 
victory the temperance cause has ever won. 

Dr. Lorenz, the famous Austrian surgeon who was 
paid a great sum to come to this country to perform 
a single operation, said: "My success depends upon 
my brain being clear, my muscles firm and nerves 
steady. No one can take alcoholic liquor without 
blunting these physical powers which I must keep on 
edge. As a surgeon I must not drink." 

Another famous surgeon. Sir Frederick Treves, said : 
*'The best of physical condition is impossible if any 
alcohol is used. Its stimulating effects are only mo- 
mentary, and after that the capacity for work falls 
enormously. No man is at his best who works on 
even a moderate amount of alcohol. Fine work can 
not be done under that condition." 

All the new evidence with regard to alcohol shows 
that it is not a stimulant, as was formerly supposed, 


but that its effects are benumbing and narcotic. Its 
supposed stimulating effect in removing the feehng of 
fatigue is really due to its putting to sleep the nerves 
that indicate fatigue. Fatigue is nature's way of 
telling us that the body requires rest. What the 
alcohol does is to make one unconscious of fatigue so 
that he tries to get more work out of an exhausted body. 
The records of benefit societies in Australia show 
that in those societies that admit only abstainers the 
average time lost by the members through Loss of 
sickness is only a little over half as much time 
as in those societies that admit drinkers. . °"^ 


This you would, of course, expect when caused by 
you consider all the effects of alcohol upon alcohol, 
the body and the mind. 

Alcohol causes the tissues of the body to degenerate 
in two ways. In what is called fatty degeneration, 
the living substance of the cell is gradually replaced 
by fat so that the organs are weakened and unable 
to do their work. The muscles of the heart and the 
kidneys and the liver may be affected in this way. 
In fibroid degeneration, there is an abnormal growth 
of connective tissue in the organs. This may take 
place in the muscular coat of the arteries, in the heart, 
and in the brain. Alcohol may cause heart disease, 
Bright's disease of the kidneys, hardening of the 
arteries and of the liver, and apoplexy, due to a rupture 
of a blood vessel in the brain. 

There is another way in which alcohol causes sick- 


ness, besides by these direct injuries to the tissues. 
We know that soldiers are much more efficient when 
kept without alcohol, and this is true of the little 
soldiers that defend the body against enemies, — the 
white blood cells. Professor Metchnikoff, who has 
told us most of what we know about the activities of 
these tiny cells, says: "Besides its harmful influence 
on the nervous system and other important parts of 
our body, alcohol exerts a damaging influence on the 
white blood cells, the agents of natural defense against 
infective microbes." Alcohol poisons these little sol- 
diers and deadens or destroys their fighting power, 
so that they are easily conquered by disease-producing 
microbes. The result is that people who take alcohol 
are much more liable to infectious diseases such as 
pneumonia, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever than are 

You know that in acute diseases the chances of 
recovery depend very much upon the condition of 
the heart. A person with a heart weakened by alcohol 
is much more likely to succumb to disease than a person 
with a strong, sound heart. So you see that one who 
uses alcohol is as a general thing more likely to take 
disease and less likely to recover from it than one who 
does not. Death by violence or by accident is also 
more likely to overtake one who is under the influence 
of alcohol than one whose senses are keen and alert 
and his muscles steady. All these things being con- 
sidered, you will not be surprised to learn that it is 


estimated that 7500 0/ the 1^0,000 deaths that take 
place in this country each year — about one-tzuentieth 
— are due either directly or indirectly to alcohol. 

You will now understand why many life insurance 
companies are becoming strong temperance advocates 
and are doing all they can to instruct people as to the 
influence of the use of alcohol upon their chances for 
long life. 

We can not better conclude our study of the effects 
of alcohol than by quoting the words of a well-known 
physician who has made a very careful study of this 
subject, Dr. Henry Smith Williams, addressed to users 
of alcohol: "I am bound to believe, in the light of 
what science has revealed (i) That you are threat- 
ening the physical structures of your stomach, your 
liver, your kidneys, your heart, your blood vessels, 
your nerves, your brain ; (2) that you are decreasing 
your capacity for work in any field, be it physical, 
intellectual, or artistic ; (3) that you are in some 
measure lowering the grade of your mind, dulling your 
higher aesthetic sense, and taking the finer edge off 
your morals ; (4) that you are distinctly lessening 
your chances of maintaining health and attaining 
longevity; and (5) that you may be entailing upon 
your descendants yet unborn a burden of incalculable 

You will find the chart on the next page interesting 
and instructive. It shows what life insurance experts 
have found out about alcohol. 


The Total Abstainer. The most painstaking observation 45-6 Yrs. 
on the part of life insurance experts shows that a man who 
is physically sound and in every way temperate in his habits 
at the age of twenty years may expect to live 45.6 years. 
The long black line stands for the TOTAL ABSTAINER. 

The Tippler. The United Kingdom Temperance and 
General Provident Institution of London has had two 
classes of risks ; first, total abstainers ; second, tipplers 
or moderate drinkers. These two classes have been ,^ 

kept entirely distinct. During a period of 60 years, "^ '^ 
from 1 841 to 1 901, it was found that the average life 
of the tippler was nearly 30 per cent shorter than the 
life of the total abstainer. While the total abstainer 
lives an average of 45.6 years after the age of twenty, 
the tippler only lives an average of 31.9 years. The 
middle line stands for the TIPPLER. 

The Drinker. Careful observation made by j_ - yrg 
F. G. D. Nelson of London shows that men 
who are drinkers at twenty will only live an 
average of 15.5 years or one half as long as the 
moderate drinker and one third as long as the 
total abstainer. The short black line stands for 

Total abstainers live on an average nearly fourteen years longer than 

moderate drinkers. 

This illustration shows the poor chance a drinker has for extended life as 
compared with a total abstainer. 

Health Problems 

1. If you know^ any drunkards, tell how the use of alcohol has 
affected their appearance, their strength, and their working powers. 

2. How has it affected the happiness of their homes ? 

3. Men sometimes drink in very cold weather to warm 


themselves. Are they really warmer after a drink of whisky ? 

4. In most mines, foremen will not permit men who have 
been drinking to go down the mine to work. Why is this ? 

5. Is there a juvenile court in your community.? If so, find 
out what per cent of the offenders brought to court use alcohol. 

6. What company in your community employs the most men ? 
Find out whether they discriminate against users of alcohol. 

7. Who is the best surgeon you know ^ Does he use alcohol ? 

8. Why do life insurance companies refuse to give a policy to 
hard drinkers ? 

9. When a person is very ill the doctor often asks whether or 
not he uses alcoholic drinks. Why do you think he does this .'' 

10. People who use alcohol frequently have violent fits of 
anger and periods of great depression. What causes this .'' 

11. Should you like to ride on a train if you knew that the 
engineer used alcohol I Why ? 

Review Questions 

1. How has the opinion of people changed recently with regafd 
to the effect of alcohol .? 

2. Tell about Doctor Hodge's experiments with dogs. 

3. How does even a moderate use of alcohol affect the energy 
and ambition of a person .? 

4. Who are able to stand the cold in the Arctic regions best — 
people who use alcohol or those who do not .? 

5. How does alcohol affect a man's working power.? 

6. What is the effect of alcohol on people in warm climates 
or desert regions .'' 

7. Tell about the test of the effect of alcohol on the work of 
the typesetters. 

8. What effect has alcohol on the judgment ? ^^^^y .? 

9. What did the experiments show as to the effect of alcohol 
on the promptness of a man's response to a signal .? 


10. How long does a drink of whisky affect a person's working 
capacity, even though' he takes only a small quantity ? 

11. What is the result when a person uses alcohol every day? 

12. Why do employers refuse to hire users of alcohol .? 

13. What effect did alcohol have on the ability of the Swedish 
marksmen ? 

14. When a tired person drinks alcohol, what happens to his 
nerves ? Is he really rested and benefited ? 

15. What is fatty degeneration? How is it caused t 

16. What \s fibroid degeneration? What causes it? 

17. Name several other diseases which may arise from the 
use of alcohol. 

18. How does alcohol injure the white blood cells ? 

19. What five things did Doctor Henry S. Williams mention 
as resulting from the use of alcohol ? 

20. Has a drinker as good a chance for a long life as a total 
abstainer ? 

Handicaps in the Race of Life 

Some years ago a bill was introduced into the House 
of Representatives of Japan prohibiting the use of 
tobacco by young people under twenty years of age. 
The Japanese statesman who introduced the bill said : 
"I should like to give you briefly the reasons why we 
have introduced this bill. Recently even children 
in our common schools have come to smoke cheap 
imported cigarettes, the consequences of which we 
fear may bring our country down to the miserable 
condition of countries like China and India ; because 
tobacco, like opium, contains narcotic poisons which 
benumb the nervous system, and weaken the mental 
power of children addicted to smoking, and this gives 
a death blow to the vitality of the nation.'^ 

The Japanese are a very patriotic people, always 
ready to sacrifice themselves for the glory of their 
nation or country. They saw that cigarette smoking 
by boys was threatening the nation's greatness, and 
so they forbade it. The eff^ect upon the nation, of 
course, could come only through the effect of the 
cigarette poison upon the individuals who smoked it. 




A cigarette smoking boy employed by a printing 
house often had to dimb several flights of stairs in the 
A stone course of his work. Many times before he 
tied to reached the top he would find himself breath- 
one's neck, jggg^ panting for air, with his heart beating 
furiously and his body trembling. The cigarette 

l- p^ g 




'•4.K''- _-.* 




1: . 

^^i^ -^1^2 



RACE ? Cigarette smoking is more of a handicap in the race of life. 

poison in his system had reached that vital organ, 
the heart. A boy with "tobacco heart" can not keep 
up with modern industrial life, and this boy was soon 
discharged. His employer said: "No boy nowadays, 
when business is so strongly competitive, can afford 
to saddle himself with any destructive habit. It is 
like trying to swim with a stone tied to one's neck, or 


race with a ball and chain at one's heels. A successful 
boy must be strong and healthy, and the tobacco- 
drenched boy is never that." 

French scientists undertook experiments some time 
ago to find out the effects of tobacco in various forms 
upon animals. When a dog inhaled the smoke of 
tobacco the first effect was to cause a marked fall 
in blood pressure which was followed by a great rise. 
There was also contraction of the vessels of the kidneys 
and dilation of the vessels of the brain. The seriousness 
of the effects produced was in proportion to the amount 
of nicotine contained in the tobacco that was used. 

The same effects are produced upon human beings 
who inhale tobacco smoke. The high blood pressure 
produced by the contraction of the blood Overtaxing 
vessels forces upon the heart a great amount *^® ^^*'"*- 
of extra work. Smokers are continually overtaxing 
their hearts in this way, with the result of wearing 
them out prematurely. Smokers often die of heart 
collapse or kidney disease because of the effects of 
tobacco upon these organs. The death of Mark Twain 
was caused by "tobacco heart." Surgeons have ex- 
pressed the opinion that President McKinley might 
have recovered from his wound if he had not been 
handicapped by a "tobacco heart." 

No one denies that tobacco is a poison to animals. 
The farmer uses it to kill the ticks on his sheep and 
the florist to destroy the green flies on his rose bushes. 
It will kill frogs, cats, and snakes. How can that 


which to all other animals is a poison be an3rthing other 
than a poison to man ? 

Smokers sometimes say that the poison is destroyed 
or escapes at the burning end of the cigar and is not 
to be found to any extent in the smoke inhaled. A 
German chemist investigated this matter and found 
that the smoke of a cigar contained half a grain of 
nicotine, an amount sufficient to kill a man if taken at a 
single dose. An habitual smoker does not die at once, 
but the effects accumulate and are likely to carry him 
off at last with heart failure or disease of the kidneys. 

A little newsboy I know, when tempted by his 
companions to smoke and ridiculed because he will 
not join them in this vice, replies: "Do you think I 
am going to burn my brains out just because you do V 
The effect of tobacco in "burning out the brains" is 
shown in the fact that out of 2jj6 boy smokers, only 
six were reported as bright students. The boy smoker 
is burning out not only his intellectual faculties, but 
his strength, manliness, courage, and steadiness, — in 
fact, all the qualities that he will need to make him a 
successful man. 

Professor Lombard of the University of Michigan 
has used the ergograph to find out the effects of tobacco 
Unst ad upon the muscles. He found that on days on 
muscles which he smoked five cigars his muscles lost 
and duu about forty-one per cent — nearly half — of 


their working power. The steadiness and pre- 
cision as well as the strength of the muscles are affected 


by smoking, due to the effect of the tobacco poison on 
the nerves that control them. 

A great engineer, when he was sending his students 
out into the world, gave them as his parting advice 
this motto: "Let your competitor smoke." By this 
he meant, if there is any smoking at all done, let it be 
done not by you but by your rival. Keep your own 
brain clear and your nerves steady, and thus you will 
increase your chances of winning life's prizes ; while if 
your competitor smokes, that habit will lessen his 
chances of outstripping you. In this he was warning 
them that tobacco, like alcohol, is a handicap to success. 

That your chances of winning are greatly increased 
if your competitor smokes is shown by the following 
instances related by Dr. Chas. B. Towns: "A great 
billiard player who never smoked assured me that he 
is sure of winning when his opponent is a smoker. 
A tennis player who smoked at twenty-one found that 
men whom he had formerly beaten with ease could 
now beat him. Riflemen know that they shoot better 
without tobacco, and even the average man who does 
not care to excel is susceptible to the repeated and 
continued doses of the various tobacco poisons." 

Mr. Luther Burbank, who has been called the wizard 
of plant life, relates the following experience : " To assist 
me in my work of budding — work that is as accurate 
and exacting as watch-making — I have a force of 
some twenty men. I discharge men from this force 
at the first show of incompetency. Some time ago 


my foreman asked me if I took pains to inquire into 
the habits of my men. On being answered in the 
negative, he surprised me by saying that the men I 
found unable to do the dehcate work of budding in- 
variably turned out to be smokers and drinkers. These 
men, while able to do the rough work of farming, call 
budding and other delicate work 'puttering' and have 
to give it up, owing to inability to concentrate their 
nerve force. Even men who smoke one cigar a day I 
cannot trust with some of my delicate work." 

Is it surprising that employers refuse to employ a 
boy who smokes and would rather that their men did 
not .^ Forty-one business houses of Massachusetts 
signed an agreement to employ no one under eighteen 
years of age who smokes. Sixty-nine merchants of 
Detroit took the same pledge. Several of the largest 
Chicago firms have prohibited cigarette smoking among 
the boys in their employ. This is a warning to the 
boy who wants to succeed in the business world to let 
tobacco alone. 

But the worst effect of cigarette smoking by boys is 
seen not in destroying the brain power, making the 
The worst uetves unsteady and unreliable, robbing the 
effectofaU. muscles of their strength, weakening the 
heart, and destroying the prospects of a successful 
career, but in the change that it makes in the character. 
You have already learned • something of this — how 
the cigarette slave will lie and steal and commit almost 
any crime because the tobacco poison has deadened 


or destroyed his moral sense. A doctor who has made a 
special study of the effects of tobacco upon boys in this 
respect says that when he hears of some dreadful and un- 
natural crime committed by a youth or a young man, he 
always expects to find that the criminal is addicted to the 
use of cigarettes, which usually proves to be the case. 

In a recent murder trial, the judge said of the prisoner, 
"This young man smokes one pound of tobacco a week 
in the form of cigarettes. This is sufficient to derange 
any man's brain and produce insanity. It makes him 
irresponsible for the crime he has committed." The 
young man, however, was responsible for the thing 
that made him irresponsible — the cigarette smoking. 

Similar testimony is given by "the Boys' Friend," 
Judge Ben B. Lindsey of the Juvenile Court of Colorado. 
He says: "I have been in the Juvenile Court nearly 
ten years, and in that time I have had to deal with 
thousands and thousands of boys who have disgraced 
themselves and their parents, and who have brought 
sorrow and misery into their lives ; and I do not know 
of any one habit that is more responsible for the troubles 
of these boys than the vile cigarette habit . No pure- 
minded, honest, manly, brave, gentle boy will smoke 

But perhaps we have not even yet got to the worst 
of the evil, which is that tobacco, is, like alcohol, a 
race poison. That is, it affects not only the person 
who smokes, but the evil is handed down to his de- 
scendants. It destroys his ability to have perfectly 


healthy children. When a boy by smoking has crip- 
pled himself mentally and morally, if he grows up and 
marries, his children will in all probability be like 
himself, mental and moral cripples. 

When tobacco gets the mastery over a man, it com- 
pels him to use his earnings for that which is worse 
A waste of than useless. A young man urged by another 
money. ^q smoke agreed to allow himself one five-cent 
cigar a day. But instead of smoking he saved the 
money, and at the end of six years it amounted to 
$109.50, which he expended for books that he called 
his "cigar library." Some one has reckoned: "One 
who begins smoking at ten years of age and smokes 
one five-cent cigar a day would, reckoning interest 
at six per cent, have paid out at the age of twenty-five 
over four hundred dollars ; at fifty years twenty-seven 
hundred ; and at seventy-five about eleven thousand 
and five hundred dollars. But suppose he smokes 
three five-cent cigars a day (which would be a limited 
allowance for most smokers). At twenty-five he would 
have smoked up thirteen hundred dollars, at fifty 
nearly nine thousand, and at seventy-five nearly forty- 
two thousand dollars." 

The health officers of Washington recently issued a 
letter of caution to parents urging them not to allow 
Unsus- their children to use tea and coffee at home, 
pected They were of the opinion that the "nervous- 
an leaps, j-^ggg" y^hich is becoming so common among 
school children was due as a rule not to overstudy, but 


as Dr. Wiley says, to the fact that "they are subjected 
to stimulants of various kinds, which have no food 
value and can work only injury. I refer especially to 
coffee and tea at home, and the indulgence by the 
boys and girls in the so-called soft drinks which con- 
tain cocain or caffein." Dr. Sadler, the great nerve 
specialist, says that coffee and tea are nerve poisons 
and are the cause of nervousness, worry, and other 

Tea and coffee not only contain, as Dr. Wiley says, 
no food value, but they work injury because they con- 
tain a poisonous substance known as theine in tea and 
caffein in coffee. Taken in concentrated form and in 
comparatively small doses, these substances cause 
sickness and may even produce death. 

An ounce of tea leaves contains from fifteen to 
thirty grains of this poison, an amount sufficient, if ex- 
tracted and swallowed at one dose, to poison a person 
not accustomed to its use. An English officer on duty 
in Africa some years ago lost a fine horse by poisoning 
from tea which had become mingled with its food. A 
physician and his assistant, in conducting some ex- 
periments with coffee, were both rendered insensible 
by drinking a quantity made from two ounces of coffee 

Tea and coffee also contain tannin, which hinders 
the digestion and absorption of food. Sir Benjamin 
Ward Richardson says: "The extremely injurious 
effects of tea are best seen in some of those who are 


charged with the commercial duty of 'tea tasting/ A 
professional tea-taster, who was so seriously affected 
that he thought it proper to consult me on the symptoms 
induced, defined the symptoms very clearly as follows : 
* Deficiency of saliva, destruction of taste for food, 
biliousness, nausea, constipation, an extreme and un- 
definable nervousness, and nightmare whenever sleep 
is obtained !' " 

Doctor Nesbit, a professor in a medical college in 
Philadelphia, established a poison squad for the pur- 
pose of testing the effects of caffein. The squad con- 
sisted of eight students to whom the caffein was given 
irregularly in such a way that they were ignorant of 
the time of its administration. All the students who 
took the caffein suffered from attacks of severe head- 
ache and nausea. One member of the squad at the 
end of twenty days became so ill that he had to be 
taken to the hospital, but he soon recovered when he 
took no more caffein. 

Drugs which are capable of such effects when taken 
in large doses must certainly work some mischief when 
„. ^. ^ taken in small doses. The difference is that 


may come the large dose takes effect immediately, while 
from small ^]^g effects of the small dose, though not so 
apparent, pile up and undermine the health, 
appearing later in chronic disorders. 

Another professor who experimented with caffein 
upon a great variety of persons noticed that when 
more than four grains were taken the caffein produced 


nervousness, headaches, and irritability. An ordinary 
cup of coffee contains 2.5 grains. How many cups 
would it take to make up the dose which would produce 
these effects ^ We must remember also that it is not 
the fifth grain that does the mischief, it is the sum of 
all the grains that have been taken. Of this Dr. Wiley 
says : " How often do I hear the phrase, 'I can drink 
a strong cup of coffee with no ill effect.' The same 
excuse is urged for the use of alcoholic beverages. . . . 
It is not the fourth or fifth drink of whisky that in- 
toxicates ; it is the sum of the first, second, and third 

Government statistics show that the average Ameri- 
can takes six grains of caffein a day, enough for the 
effects to be immediately apparent in nervousness, 
headache, and irritability. And, as we have seen, 
even when taken in smaller doses the effects pile up 
and undermine the health. What should we think of 
bread or potatoes if taking an extra slice of bread 
or an extra potato was likely to produce poisonous 
effects .? 

Why do people continue to take these drugs .? Be- 
cause their first effect when taken in small doses is 
exhilarating, so that they appear to relieve fatigue 
and increase efficiency. They enable a person to get 
more work out of himself at the time, just as a whip 
will spur a tired horse to make further effort, although 
it puts nothing into him to supply the strength for 
that effort. The tired woman takes a cup of tea and 


feels refreshed and able to do more work. But she is 
not rested. She feels rested when she is still actually 
tired. She makes the cup of tea a substitute for the 
rest she ought to have taken to allow for the renewal 
of the body. In this way she is laying the foundation 
for nervous exhaustion. 

Caffein is especially a brain excitant. Sometimes 
hard brain workers, especially those that have to 
A violent work late at night, — editors, reporters, stu- 
brain dents before examination, — take coffee to 

stimulant, gj^^j^j^ them to get more work out of their 
tired brains. As the coffee wakes up the brain the 
whole nervous system shares in the exciting effect, 
and the person is quite likely to smoke to soothe the 
irritated nerves. Sooner or later this state of things 
results in a nervous, irritable condition, loss of weight, 
tremulousness, in short, in neurasthenia, a general 
derangement of the nervous system. This disease is 
sometimes called "Americanitis" because it is so 
common in this country. This doubtless has some 
relation to the fact that more coffee is consumed in 
the United States than in any other country. It is 
estimated that 25,000,000,000 cups of coffee, which 
means 62,500,000,000 grains of caffein, are consumed 
in the United States every year. 

"I must have a cup of tea or coffee for my breakfast ; 
without it I am good for nothing for the whole day," 
is an expression one often hears. The conclusion to be 
drawn from this is not that the tea or coffee is beneficial, 


but the reverse. It classes tea and coffee with the 
injurious habit-forming drugs. The fact that one 
who uses these beverages finds himself nervous and 
uncomfortable without them, just as the alcohol toper 
is uncomfortable without his customary toddy, is 
additional evidence of their harmful effect. No such 
results follow the withdrawal of bread or potatoes. 

The exciting effect of these beverages is especially 
injurious in the case of children, who need to rest 
normally when fatigued in order that their growth 
may not be hindered. For this reason parents who 
have themselves formed the habit of using tea and 
coffee often withhold them from their children. Some 
of these children, however, who are not allowed to 
drink tea and coffee at home, get the very same poison 
at the soda fountain, where beverages containing 
caffein are sold. Experts are agreed that caffein- 
bearing beverages taken upon an empty stomach 
are more injurious than the same amount of caffein 
would be consumed with meals. This is the reason 
why Dr. Wiley especially warns the boys and girls 
against the soft drinks containing this poison, especially 
the various "cola" drinks. 

He says : 

"My plea to the teachers of the nation is to join in 
the great work to banish from the menu of the child 
every single substance which hits the nerves, excites 
undue activity, or produces unnatural stimulation, 
and to substitute in its place a wholesome, nutritious. 


plain, simple diet, which may enable the child to grow 
and become a healthy and valuable citizen." 

Recently complaints were made to the police in 
Newark, New Jersey, by parents who said that their 
boys had become "cocaine fiends." The 
enemy of police investigated and discovered that three 
the nerves youths were tempting and threatening the 
andthe children into inhaling the drug, which was 

mind. o cj^ 

sold to them in five and ten cent doses and 
paid for with pennies given to the children for candy. 
One little boy told how one of these youths had suc- 
ceeded in forcing him to take the drug. "He told 
me," he said, "that it would make me big and strong ; 
that I would be a fine fighter if I took it often, and 
would soon be able to lick any boy of my size in the 
school. He also said that I would have nice dreams 
about being a millionaire's son, and having everything 
I wanted." None of the children knew that it was 
cocaine that was being sold to them, to sell which 
without a license is forbidden by law. 

The truth about cocaine, which is very different 
from the picture given to the children, is shown in the 
fact that there are over one hundred sanitariums in 
the country giving treatment for the victims of the 
use of such drugs. It is a fact, also, that "those using 
cocaine, morphine, and opium are short-lived, most 
of them dying within ten years after contracting the 
habit and after suffering untold misery of mind and 


A great many people get the drug habit without 
knowing it through using patent medicines containing 
these poisons. The head of a wholesale drug p^^^^^ 
house testified in court that samples of a cer- patent 
tain catarrh cure were being given away ™® ^cmes. 
in New York City for the purpose of creating an 
appetite for it and so increasing its sale. Patent 
nostrums offered for catarrh, colds, hay fever, and 
such diseases, usually contain some powerful drug 
which if repeatedly taken will create an appetite for 
it and enslave its victim. 

The principal object sought by the makers of most 
patent medicines is that they shall produce a quick 
and vigorous impression. The stimulating or narcotic 
effects of the drugs put into them for this purpose 
are mistaken by the patient for marked evidences of 
improvement. When the effect wears off, he repeats 
the dose and continually has to increase it in order 
to get the same effect, until he finds himself a slave to 
the drug habit. 

The Chief of the Division of Drugs of the Bureau of 
Chemistry tells of a boy who contracted the cocaine 
habit through its use for the treatment of catarrh. 
It became quite impossible for the boy to resist the 
temptation to use the drug, which was frequently 
offered to him by dishonest dealers. To save his 
family from disgrace he asked that he might be sent 
to a country where cocaine could not be purchased, 
and he was sent to Germany. 


Patent headache remedies are especially dangerous. 
When Dr. Wiley was Chief Chemist of the Department 
of Agriculture he said : "Hardly a day passes that I 
do not receive from some part of the country the re- 
port of a death from taking headache powders. Every 
such preparation sold contains large quantities of 
either acetanilid, phenacetin, antipyrin or caffein, all 
of which affect the heart more or less." 

Even the babies are not safe from drugs, but are 
sometimes, through the ignorance of their mothers or 
nurses, especially exposed to them under the name of 
soothing sirups, or colic cures. It is well known 
that these "soothing" preparations contain opium, 
morphine, or chloroform. Nurses sometimes use them 
unknown to the mothers to quiet the babies and put 
them to sleep. 

The majority of bottled patent medicines contain 
alcohol, some as much as twenty-eight per cent. Some 
people of strict temperance principles have innocently 
acquired the alcohol habit by the use of patent 

Health Problems 

1. Are there any cigarette smokers in your class? If so, are 
they good students ? Are they as courageous as other boys who 
do not use tobacco ? 

2. Are there any laws in your community limiting or prohibiting 
the use of tobacco ? If so, tell about them. 

3. Most drinkers and tobacco users season their food very 
highly, smothering it in such condiments as salt, pepper, and 
catsup. Explain. 



4. Tobacco users seldom have a keen sense of smell. Why is 
this ? 

5. What causes the trembling, unsteady hand of the habitual 
drinker or smoker ? 

6. In greenhouses florists use tobacco smoke to kill insects 
on plants. If the smoke is powerful enough to kill these insects, 
do you think it will leave the cells of the body unharmed .? 

7. Find out what pupils in your class use tea or coffee regularly. 
Are their nerves as strong as those of girls and boys who do not 
use these drinks ? 

8. What do you think of the practice of substituting a drink of 
tea or coffee for an hour of needed rest .'* 

9. Can a drink which will make a tired person wakeful be a 
good one .'' 

10. Do the newspapers in your community advertise "patent 
medicines"? Can these medicines cure the diseases for which 
they are taken ? 

Review Questions 

1. Why was a bill introduced in the House of Representatives 
in Japan against the use of tobacco by persons under twenty years 
of age ? 

2. What is "tobacco heart" ? 

3. Tell about the effects of tobacco on animals. 

4. Does it have the same effect on human beings ? 

5. How does tobacco affect a man's mental powers ? 

6. How does it affect his muscles ? 

7. Tell about Luther Burbank's experience with his workmen. 

8. What is meant by a "moral cripple"? How does tobacco 
help to create "moral cripples" ? 

9. What did Dr. Wiley say caused the "nervousness" common 
among school children ? 

10. What poisonous substance is contained in coffee ? In tea ? 

11. How are tea-tasters often affected by their work? 


12. How did the caffein affect the poison squad who drank it? 

13. Why does a cup of tea or coffee sometimes make one feel 
refreshed ? Is this a good thing ? 

14. What is said about drinks containing cola ? 

15. Name some of the habit-forming drugs. What effect 
have they on the body ? 

16. Mention some patent medicines. What do they frequently 
contain .? Why are these poisons put in the medicines ^ 

17. Can such medicines really cure disease.? 

18. Why are soothing sirups and headache medicines especially 
dangerous .? 

The Body-Filters for Destroying Poisons 

You probably know by this time that the body is a 
factory of poisons. Even in a healthy person living 
under perfectly right conditions, poisonous substances 
are constantly being formed by the wear and tear of 
the body. Besides this, poisons are constantly being 
developed by the decay of food in the alimentary canal. 
Bouchard, a distinguished French investigator, dem- 
onstrated that there is enough poison formed in the 
human body every twenty-four hours to cause death 
if it were not destroyed. Why do we not die of these 
body poisons .? Because of the wonderful provision 
made by nature for their prompt removal by means 
of the eliminative organs. 

The blood takes up the poisons from the various 
tissues and, as it circulates through the body, certain 
organs, which we might call the body filters, The body 
remove these injurious products, much as a filters. 
filter removes the impurities from water. The cir- 
culation of the blood is arranged especially for this 
purpose. Do you remember the arrangement called 
the pulmonary circulation, by means of which the 


1 84 


The circulation of the blood. The heavy black lines 
SHOW the arteries. 


blood is sent from the heart into the lungs, where the 
carbon dioxide is removed and the blood is filled with 
oxygen before it is returned to the heart to be pumped 
through the body ? Do you remember also the portal 
circulation, an arrangement by which all the blood 
supplied to the digestive organs — the stomach, in- 
testines, pancreas, and spleen — passes through the 
liver before going to the heart ? In this way all the 
materials absorbed during digestion are submitted 
to the inspection of the liver, which is another poison 

Aside from the brain, the liver is perhaps the most 
wonderful and mysterious organ in the body. It does 

many kinds of work. It secretes a fluid, it . 

. . p . , A wonder- 

excretes poisons, It creates ferments, it de- fui and 

stroys poisons, it digests and does other impor- mysterious 

tant work. It seems to be a sort of jack-of- °^^^' 

all trades in the body, and yet its cells look all alike. 

The most powerful microscope can reveal no clew to 

its marvelous variety of activities. People have been 

known to live without a stomach, and with only one 

kidney, and with large portions of the intestinal canal 

removed. But if the liver were removed from a person, 

he would soon be fatally poisoned by the accumulation 

of the poisons which the liver excretes or destroys. 

The power to destroy poisons is one of the most 

wonderful functions of the liver, by means of which it 

stands between us and death. If a person drinks 

water containing lead, or eats peas or pickles colored 

1 86 


with copper, the Hver seizes upon the poisonous metal, 
and after discharging as much of it as possible through 
the bile, gathers the remainder up in its cells, thus 
preventing the passing on of the poison to the rest of 
the body. It is only when the power of the liver to expel 
or retain the poison has been exhausted that the harm- 
ful substance 
is allowed to 
pass on into 
the blood to 
injure the rest 
of the body. 

Out of some 
of the waste 
materials that 
it abstracts 
from the blood, 
the liver makes 
ing from six- 
teen to twenty- 
four ounces every twenty-four hours. The bile 
serves a number of purposes. Besides assisting in 
the digestion of fats, it is an antiseptic and a 
laxative ; that is, it hinders the growth of harmful 
germs in the alimentary canal, and it also encour- 
ages activity of the intestines. The bile is one of 
the most poisonous of the body wastes and needs to 
be removed from the system as speedily as possible. 

The organs of excretion. 


This is one important reason why the bowels should 
move often, at least three times a da}^, or after each meal. 

Waste substances produced by bodily activity are 
in part changed into urea by means of special ferments 
that are formed by the cells of the liver, and are in 
this way prepared for 
elimination from the body 
by another of the poison 
filters, the kidneys. The 
importance of the work of 
the kidneys in removing 
poisons is shown in the 
fact that if these organs 
are injured or crippled by 
disease so that they are 
no longer capable of filter- 
ing out the poisons from 
the blood, the person will 
pass into a state of in- 
sensibility (coma) which 
soon ends in death. 

When the body filters 
are impaired by disease, so that elimination is in- 
complete, or when poisons are taken in or produced 
in the body in overwhelming quantities, the result 
is intoxication, or poisoning. 

The word "intoxication" brings to our minds a 
reeling drunkard ; it makes us think of the saloon, 
the police station, wrecked homes, and ruined lives. 

The kidneys. 
I, kidneys; 2, renal cavity; 3, renal 
artery ; 4, descending aorta ; 5, as- 
cending vena cava; 6, ureter. 


Alcoholic intoxication is, however, only one phase 
of its meaning. "Intoxicate" comes from the Latin 
. , . word toxicare, and means really, "to poison." 
toxication, Now, it is a fact that a great many more 
or self- people are poisoned or intoxicated by food 
than by strong drink. The poisons formed 
in the body if not promptly eliminated are just as 
capable of producing intoxication as are poisons taken 
into the body, such as alcohol. This kind of poisoning 
is called auto-intoxication, a word meaning self-poisoning. 

The most common form of this kind of poisoning 
is what is called intestinal intoxication, — that is, self- 
poisoning with poisons that are absorbed from the 
intestine. How are these poisons produced ? By 
germs, in the same way as poisons are produced in 
any decaying substance. 

Pasteur, the French scientist, discovered that the 
intestinal tract is swarming with bacteria. Later 
investigators estimated the number produced in the 
intestine daily to be not less than 150,000,000,000,000, 
and doubtless the number is sometimes much greater. 
These germs may be divided into two classes — fer- 
mentation germs and putrefaction germs — which differ 
greatly in their characteristics and in the substances 
that they produce by their activity. Fermentation 
germs feed upon carbohydrates and produce acids 
that are practically harmless. The putrefaction germs 
feed upon proteins and produce toxins, some of which 
are almost as deadly as the venom of snakes. You 


can see that the kind of germs that are most active 
in the intestine must depend chiefly upon the diet. 

Normal human beings are born into the world 
entirely free from bacteria. Not a single germ is 
found in the interior of the new-born infant. Within 
a few hours after birth — four to six hours in summer 
and twenty hours in winter — the intestines of the 
infant are found to be swarming with bacteria of the 
harmless sort, the fermentation germs, or acid-formers. 
These acid-forming germs play a helpful role. Thanks 
to "their action, the putrefaction germs can not thrive 
in the intestine, for these latter can not grow in acids. 

Professor Metchnikoff^, of whom you have already 
heard, in making investigations as to the causes of 
old age, observed that in the places where the ^ 

o ' ^ One way 

most very old people were found, sour milk to kiu 
formed a large part of the diet of the people, harmful 
In Bulgaria, for instance, a little country ^^"°^" 
with only four million people, there are 3000 cen- 
tenarians, or persons one hundred years old, or more. 
In other words, one in every 1300 of the population 
is over one hundred years of age. In this country, 
with a population of 100,000,000, we have only 4000 
centenarians, — one in every 25,000. In Bulgaria 
there are nearly twenty times as many centenarians, in 
proportion to the population, as there are in the United 

Sour milk, known under various names as "yaghourt," 
" matzoon," and "leben," is much used by the people 


of Bulgaria and many parts of Asia and Africa. A man 
carrying pans of sour milk which he sells under the 
name of "matzoon" is a common sight in the streets 
of Constantinople. A similar sour milk preparation 
known as "skyr" is highly prized in Iceland. A fer- 
mented milk is used in India under the name of "dahi." 

Sour milk contains the acid-forming fermentation 
germs whose activities prevent the decay of foods. 
If meat, which easily decays, is put into sour milk, 
it will keep indefinitely if the milk is changed every 
few days. This method of preserving meat is used 
in some countries. In the writer's laboratory is a 
piece of beefsteak which has in this way been kept 
in a perfect state of preservation for more than seven 
years. The lactic acid microbes have just the same 
effect inside the body, in the digestive tube, as they 
have outside of it. For this reason Professor Metchni- 
koff recommends the drinking of sour milk as a means 
of preventing intestinal putrefaction. 

Another way in which we can reduce the poison- 
forming microbes in the intestine is by regulating 
. , the diet so as to provide as little food for them 

Mother ^ 1 r 1 r • 

way to kiu as possible. The food of the putrefaction 
harmful germ, as we have seen, is protein. Foods 
germs. ^^^ic^ contain no protein — for example, 
sugar — cannot putrefy. Meat and eggs, which are 
chiefly protein, readily putrefy. Vegetable substances 
are not likely to undergo this change because they 
contain but little protein. Besides this. Professor 


Tissier, of the Pasteur Institute, has recently shown 
by experiments that animal protein, that is, meat, fish, 
and eggs, decays twice as readily as vegetable protein. 

You can now see that a high-protein diet, especially 
when it consists largely of animal foods such as meat 
and eggs, is quite likely to cause disease. When more 
protein is eaten than can be easily digested, bacteria 
will grow in the undigested remnants, causing putre- 
faction. The toxins formed will be absorbed into the 
blood, and the whole body will be poisoned. A series 
of experiments have shown that, in persons living 
mainly on a flesh diet, the toxins formed in the intestine 
were four times as much as in persons living on a low- 
protein vegetable diet. It has also been shown by 
experiment that the kidney secretion frequently con- 
tains several times as much poison when a person is 
living largely on a flesh diet as when he is living on a 
low-protein diet. In such cases the work of the kidneys 
in abstracting the poisons from the blood is greatly 
increased, and they are, of course, more likely to be- 
come worn out and diseased. 

But perhaps the chief cause of self-poisoning is due 
to the retention of the poisonous decaying material 
in the colon (a part of the intestines), especially ^^^^ ^^^^ 
when this evil is combined with the high- cause of 
protein diet. In such cases, the work of the seif-poison- 
eliminative organs is greatly increased to 
throw off^ the poisonous substances that ought to have 
been discharged through the bowels. Sick headache, 



biliousness, a coated tongue, a sallow complexion, 
inability to concentrate the mind, irritability or de- 
pression, offensive breath and perspiration — these 
are some of the signs of this condition. If these warn- 
ings are not attended 
to, more serious con- 
ditions are likely to 
develop, — chronic 
diseases of the kid- 
neys, liver, heart, and 
blood vessels, as a re- 
sult of the poisons 
constantly circulat- 
ing in the blood. A 
young person with 
sound liver and kid- 
neys may be able to 
tolerate these poisons 
for a long time, 
though they will be 
constantly undermin- 
ing his health. But 
when the marvelous 
poison-destroying machinery of the body becomes 
weakened or worn out by overwork, then these graver 
troubles appear. It is now well known that nearly 
all the changes in the body causing the so-called 
chronic diseases are caused by the absorption of 
poisons from the alimentary canal, especially from the 

Unless the intestines are active, the 
progress of digested material is re- 


large intestine or colon — the last five feet of the food 

Until quite recently this part of the alimentary canal 
has been regarded as of 
little consequence, be- 
cause its use is so largely 
that of a receptacle for 
unusable and waste mat- 
ters, a sort of human 
garbage box. You know, 
however, what is likely 
to ensue when the gar- 
bage receptacle of a 
house is neglected. It 
becomes a breeding 
place for germs, and the 
health of the inhabitants 
of the house is likely to 
suffer. Modern investi- 
gators of this part of the 
intestine have shown 
that by neglect this re- 
ceptacle for wastes may 
become a sort of Pan- 
dora's Box of miseries 
and maladies. So many 
and so serious are the 
troubles of mind and body which have been traced 
to it, that it has even been seriously suggested by 

Gate 6 

Compare the movement of the food 
along the alimentary canal with a 



some scientists that the removal of the colon from 
the body would be a most desirable improvement. 

There is a vast army of invalids throughout the 
country handicapped by chronic ills. Their efficiency 
is decreased and they are missing much of the joy of 
living. The only way to prevent or cure these chronic 
diseases is by proper habits of eating, drinking, breath- 
ing, exercise, and so on. Since so many of these ills 
are due, as we have seen, to the poisoning of the body 
from the contents of the intestine, it is a very important 
matter to attend to the cleanliness of the colon, reducing 
as much as possible the poison-forming microbes con- 
tained in it, (i) by a wholesome dietary; (2) by the 
proper regulation of the bowels. No matter what the 
diet may be, if the wastes are not promptly removed, 
toxins will be absorbed into the blood. 

The movement of the food along the alimentary 
canal may be compared to that of a train of cars from 
The diges- Station to Station. By consulting a time- 
tiontime table, oue may know just when a train is due. 
*^ ®' A physiologist has made a digestion time- 

table, which gives the time when the food eaten at a 
meal is due to arrive at certain stations in the alimen- 
tary canal. 

Time-table for Digestion 

Mouth (for mastication) . . . | hour 

Stomach . .• 4^ to 5 hours 

Small intestines 4 to 9 hours 

Colon (to fill and empty) . . . 9 to 18 hours 


Of course the time depends upon the conditions 
under which the food is eaten. 

By mixing bismuth with the food eaten it is now 
possible by means of X-ray examinations to trace 
the progress of the food through the tube, and find out 
if it is on time at the different stations, and if not, just 
where the delay is caused. 

The kind and quantity of the food eaten influence 
to some degree, of course, the time necessary for diges- 
tion. But these figures, which are nearly correct, 
show that the wastes should be ready to pass out of 
the body in twelve to sixteen hours from the time the 
food is eaten. If they are then promptly removed, 
there is little opportunity for dangerous poisons to 
be formed. But when they are permitted to remain 
twenty-four hours, and even, as in some cases, for sev- 
eral days, the intestine may become a sort of obstructed 
sewer, flooding the body with nerve-paralyzing and 
disease-producing poisons. 

The body, you must remember, is a sort of tube 
with an outside skin and an inside skin, and the latter 
is the lining of the alimentary canal. Many persons 
who would not think of allowing the outside skin to 
become filthy are not at all particular about the inside 
skin, perhaps because they can not see it. If the 
outside skin becomes dirty, much of the impurity is cast 
off in the perspiration and in other ways ; but if the 
lining skin becomes dirty, the impurities are likely to 
be absorbed into the blood to poison the body. 


Remember that the food is much more hkely to 
arrive on time at the different stations when it has 
xt- . bulk, which stimulates the wall of the intestine 
encourage and makes it more active. Fruits, vegetables, 
intestinal ^^(1 salads are useful for this purpose, because 
of the indigestible cellulose they contain. 
Foods that are completely digested, leaving little or 
no remains, such as rice, boiled milk, bananas, potatoes, 
and fine flour bread, are constipating foods, simply 
because they do not leave sufficient indigestible residue 
to incite the intestine to action. 

When the bowels do not move frequently and 
thoroughly, the colon becomes distended. It is over- 
stretched in all directions so that it becomes too long 
as well as too large. Sometimes folds and "kinks" 
form, which greatly cripple the bowels and produce 
obstinate constipation. The overstretching also causes 
serious injury by destroying or rendering incompetent 
the ileocecal valve, — an interesting structure which 
Nature has placed at the lower end of the small intes- 
tine where it joins the colon, a check valve to prevent 
the filthy fecal matters of the colon from backing up 
into the small intestine. Examinations with the X-ray 
have shown that this condition is very common and a 
serious cause of sick headache, so-called biliousnes, and 
many other distressing ailments. 

Exercise is another means by which the intestine 
is mechanically set into action. Vigorous exercise, 
especially that which causes bendings of the body and 


movements of the legs, sets the diaphragm and ab- 
dominal muscles at work in such a way that between 
the two the intestines are vigorously kneaded and 
squeezed and thus stimulated to action. Deep breath- 
ing exercises and massage of the abdomen are also 

Basket ball and similar games furnish fine exercise for all the body, 
including the abdominal muscles. 

useful for this purpose. Drinking cold water, especially 
at bed time and the first thing in the morning, is another 
means of encouraging this intestinal action. 

But the most powerful of all natural stimulants of 
the intestine is just eating, taking food into the stomach. 
Very soon after food enters the mouth a wave of action 
is started in the stomach and it passes along the entire 


tube. X-ray examinations show that the intestinal 
contents move four times as fast during a meal as dur- 
ing the intervals between meals. Regular meal hours 
are necessary to produce regular bowel movements. 
Missing a meal interrupts the natural rhythm and is 
likely to cause the waste material to be retained too 
long. If a full meal can not be taken at mealtime, a 
little fruit or fruit juice should be taken for the benefit 
of the bowels. 

Persons suffering from troubles caused by self- 
poisoning sometimes try to improve their condition 
Fasting not ^Y ^^^S fasting, — abstaining from food en- 
agood tirely for a long period. This is not a good 
reme y. remedy, for several reasons. When a person 
is fasting, the body does not actually go without food, 
but feeds on the fats and proteins of its own tissues. 
As a result of this high-protein diet an increased 
amount of- toxins is formed in the body. Examina- 
tions made of fasting persons have shown that an 
unusual amount of poisons is being eliminated. Be- 
sides this, the natural arousing of the intestine furnished 
by the taking in of food does not take place, and so 
the bowels remain inactive. Yet bile is being formed, 
and poisonous matters are being given off as usual by 
the mucous membrane of the intestine ; and it is 
necessary that these wastes should be removed. A 
better way to starve out the putrefaction germs is to 
confine the diet for a time to ripe, fresh fruit and green 
vegetables. This diet provides some nourishment, 


gives sufficient bulk to stimulate the intestine to 
activity, and cleanses the alimentary canal ; but it 
provides no food for the poison-forming microbes. 

The "call" to bowel movement is like the call of 
the alarm clock set to awaken one in the morning. 
If not responded to, it soon ceases to be heard. It 
is like the voice of conscience, which may be wholly 
stifled by continued disregard. This is only working 
of a general law. A continuous sensation that is ignored 
by and by makes no impression. The first time a 
*'cair' is disregarded it may be heard again after 
the next meal or as the result of some other influence 
which sets up intestinal action. But after having 
been disregarded or resisted many times, the "call" 
becomes less and less distinct, until it may even cease 
to be heard at all, because the nerves charged with this 
duty have lost their sensibility. This loss is almost as 
bad as the loss of a fortune ; indeed, a condition of 
constipation has more than once led to loss of fortune 
and to worse results. 

Health Problems 

1. Show why it is or is not right to speak of the kidneys as 
"body filters." 

2. What do you think of when you hear the word "in- 
toxicated".'' Is a sick person really intoxicated r Wh}- ? 

3. Do fermentation germs work on things outside the body.' 
If so, mention what things. 

4. How can you tell when putrefaction germs are at work on 
anything '? 


5. How old is the oldest person in your community? Find 
out something about his diet and habits of living. 

6. Try the experiment of preserving a small piece of meat in 
sour milk, and report the result to the class. 

7. Would you allow garbage to collect near your house until it 
became the breeding place of dangerous germs ^ Should a person 
be willing to let waste materials collect in his body in this way ? 

8. Read and tell the story of Pandora's Box. How may the 
colon become a veritable Pandora's Box of troubles ? 

9. What is your dinner time ? Find out from the digestion 
table just when your food is due at different stations in the body. 

10. Can a person be thought really clean unless his inside skin 
as well as his outside skin is clean ? Mention some ways which 
help to keep the inside skin clean. 

Review Questions 

1. How are poisons constantly being formed in the body? 

2. What is the pulmonary circulation ? 

3. What is the portal circulation ? 

4. Name the poison filters in the body, 

5. What is the most wonderful organ in the body besides the 
brain ? Why ? 

6. What is the most important function of the liver ? Tell 
about how it performs this function. 

7. What is the bile ? Of what use is it ? 

8. Of what use are the kidneys ? 

9. What happens when the liver and the kidneys are in- 
jured by disease ? 

10. What is "auto-intoxication" ? 

11. What two kinds of germs are found in the intestines? 
What does each produce ? 

12. Which germ feeds on carbohydrates ? Which upon pro- 
teins ? 


13. What did Professor MetchnikofF find in his experiments 
as to the causes of old age ? 

14. What foods putrefy most easily ? 

15. How may the diet be regulated so as to reduce the number 
of poison-forming microbes in the body ? 

16. What effect has the retaining of wastes upon one's health ? 
Why ? What may result from neglecting the warning to expel 
the wastes of the body ? 

17. How soon after food is eaten should the wastes pass out of 
the body ? 

18. What foods stimulate intestinal activity ? 

19. What effect has exercise upon intestinal activity ? 

20. Is fasting a good remedy for auto-intoxication ? Why ? 

21. What is intestinal action ? How is it caused, and what is 
its importance ? 


How THE Body renews Itself 

About one third of our life — eight hours out of 
the twenty- four — is spent in sleep. Why is this 

necessary ? It 
v/ould be most 
unwise to spend 
one third of our 
time in bed un- 
less we accom- 
plish something 
by it. This 
period of in- 
activity gives 
the little cell 
builders of the 
body the op- 
portunity to carry on the work of repair and prepare 
the body for more work in the future. 

Some people keep their houses always "in good 
repair." A broken pane of glass is at once replaced 
Keeping ^y a new one. A leakage in the roof is mended 
"in good before there is a chance for the house to be 
repair. damaged by water's leaking through. The 
woodwork of the house is preserved by being given a 


w '^SKI^^r III "" jiiMBiillliM^^^BWM^ 

- 1 



fresh, coat of paint whenever necessary. But some 
shiftless people let their houses "run down" until there 
is such an accumulation of repairing work to be done 
on it that they either have to move out altogether or 
else be put to great inconvenience while the house is 
turned over to the workmen for the necessary repairs. 
When a person does not take enough sleep every 
hours to keep 
the body "in 
good repair," 
the amount of 
work to be done 
on it accumu- 
lates, until 
finally he has 
to take a long 
period of rest 
on account of 
nerve exhaus- 
tion or some other malady caused by his being "out 
of repair." 

A scientist who wanted to find out thfe effects ot 
work upon the nerve cells made some experiments 
with birds for this purpose. Dr. Hodge took Aninterest- 
the active little English sparrow and made ing experi- 
examinations in the morning after a night's ™^° ' 
rest and again in the evening after a day's activity. 
He found that in the evening the cells were shrunken 


IHfi' 1 






0S^ . ^^ 


J'" " 




'■'^;^: r^ 

Windows open : pupils alert and interested. 


and much smaller than they were in the morning. 
Experiments with swallows and bees showed the same 
thing. Before work, the cells were round, smooth, and 
regular ; but after a long period of work they were ir- 
regular in appearance, shrunken, and jagged. Duringthe 
day the birds were using up nervous energy ; the nerve 
cells were broken down faster than they were built up. 

All the tissues of the body are built up while we 
are asleep. Sleep is the time of growth, of renewal 
Sleep for ^^^ rebuilding. One reason an infant grows 
body biiiid- SO fast is because it sleeps so much. When a 
^°^' person loses sleep he is likely to become pale. 

After a good rest his color will probably improve and 
he will look as though he had more blood circulating 
in his veins. If a drop of blood from a person who has 
lost several nights' sleep is examined under the micro- 
scope and the cells counted, it will be found to have 
fewer blood cells and less hemoglobin than normally. 
But if examined again after several nights of good 
sound sleep, it will be found that both blood cells and 
hemoglobin have increased. The blood is made prin- 
cipally while we are sleeping. 

Another important thing that takes place in sleep 
is the storing up of oxygen in the tissues. When we 
are active we use up the oxygen that we store up 
while asleep. For this reason, it is important that 
one should get as much fresh air as possible during 
sleep. This can, of course, best be done by sleep- 
ing outdoors. Most modern houses now contain out- 


door sleeping apartments. People obliged to do sed- 
entary work indoors during the day can at least spend 
one third of their time — the sleeping hours — in the 
fresh air. 

Most people are refreshed much more by sleeping out-doors than. 


Dr. Mosso's balancing board showed, you will remem- 
ber, a change in the balance when the person reclining 
on it fell asleep. The feet went down and 
the head up. What caused this change ? 

Changes in 
It the circula- 

the person were suddenly awakened, the ^°° dunng 
balance would be reversed. The feet would 
come up and the head would go down, showing that 
the amount of blood in the brain had increased. 


The nerve center that has control of the blood vessels, 
or the vasomotor center, as it is called, is situated in the 
medulla oblongata (See The Body in Health, p. 211) 
at the base of the brain. We might compare the 
vasomotor center to a factory superintendent's office 
from which directions are telephoned to the foremen 
of the different departments. The vasomotor center 
in this way holds a grip, as it were, upon all the blood 
vessels of the body. When the vasomotor center 
becomes tired, it loses its grip to some extent, so that 
the blood vessels of the body relax or dilate and so 
contain more blood, and this means, of course, less 
blood in the brain. The blood recedes from the brain 
to the extremities. In a patient in whom Dr. Mosso 
was able to see the brain through a hole in the skull, 
he noticed that its volume decreased in sleep, while 
careful measurements with an instrument called a 
pi ethysmo graph showed that the volume of the extremi- 
ties — the hands and arms, the feet and legs — in- 
creased, showing that they contained more blood. 
This change seems to be for the purpose of keeping 
the limbs warm during the inactive period of sleep. 

A person who is tired has less blood in the brain 
than one who is fresh, and this decrease of blood in 
the brain is thought to be one of the principal causes 
of sleep. We all know that anything which tends 
to send the blood to the brain, — mental activity 
or excitement, — causes wakefulness ; while, on the 
other hand, anything that tends to draw the blood 


away from the brain, — a heavy meal, for instance, 
— makes us drowsy. A hot foot bath or "leg pack" is 
useful in producing sleep, because by drawing the 
blood to the extremities it will lessen the amount in 
the brain. 

Even a sleepy person will become wide awake at 
once if something occurs which specially interests 
him, because the brain begins to exert itself and so 
calls for more blood. You can see an instance of this 
in almost any public gathering. When the exercises 
are dull, you are pretty sure to see some of the people 
falling asleep. But if the lecturer begins to tell an 
interesting story or to throw pictures upon a screen, 
everybody wakes up, because his interest in the pro- 
ceedings draws more blood to the brain. 

Experiments have shown that at night when we 
are tired our nerves do not respond as readily as in 
the morning when we are fresh. This is DuUness 
thought to be due largely to the presence due to 
in the blood of the fatigue poisons resulting *^^®^°^ss- 
from work. The lessened activity of the nervous 
system when we are tired causes us to be less sensitive 
to our surroundings. We lose, our keen interest in 
what is taking place about us, the brain calls for little 
blood, and we may drop off into sleep. 

The influence of sense-excitement in keeping us 
awake was shown in a case reported by a German 
scientist of a boy under his care. This boy, who was 
fourteen years of age, had a peculiar disease of the 


nervous system which cut him off from all communica- 
tion with the outside world, except by means of one eye 
and one ear. He had lost the sense of touch, and of 
pain, heat, and cold ; he could neither taste nor smell. 
When Professor Strumpel would tell the boy to close 
his eye and would then plug the ear with cotton, thus 
closing up all the avenues to the world without, the 
boy would immediately fall asleep. Have you noticed 
that a child who is apparently not at all sleepy will, 
if made to lie down in a quiet darkened room, soon 
fall asleep ? 

One sleeps more soundly in darkness than in light, 
because some light creeps in even through the closed 
Things that cyelids and stimulates the brain to some de- 
prevent gree. You can tell at once with your eyes 
^^®®^' closed whether or not there is a light in the 

room. Some people are in the habit of keeping arti- 
ficial light in their bedrooms. Do you think "night 
lights" are a good thing .? 

Any kind of stimulus acting upon us during the 
sleeping hours makes our sleep less sound and refresh- 
ing. You know how difficult it is to sleep indoors on 
a hot midsummer night. Our nerves are then con- 
stantly irritated by the heat. Or in the cold weather, 
when the bed clothing is not sufficient, one may be 
aware of being cold, even when partly asleep. 

But perhaps the thing that has the most disturbing 
effect upon sleep is noise. You know how anxious a 
mother with a sleeping baby is to avoid the least noise 


in the house. When one is falling asleep the power 
to recognize sounds lasts longest. As one awakens, 


he is able to recognize sounds before he is able to make 
a voluntary movement. The period of soundest sleep 
has been determined by noting the distance through 


which a brass ball must fall to the floor in order to 
awaken a sleeper. The greater the distance the ball 
falls, of course, the greater the noise it makes when 
it strikes the floor. It has been found that it requires 
a louder noise to awaken a sleeper during the first 
hour of sleep than at any other period. This fact 
shows that sleep is soundest during the first hours. 

One of Dr. Mosso's patients with whom he made 
some interesting experiments was a man whose head 
had been injured by a brick dropped upon it by another 
man when they were at work upon a church building. 
As a result of this he had a small hole in the middle of 
his forehead, through which the brain could be seen 
steadily throbbing. By means of a delicate instru- 
ment that could be inserted through the hole, the brain 
was made to keep the record of its own pulsations, as the 
pulse may be made to do by means of the sphygmograph 
of which you have learned. A pencil connected with 
the instrument made lines upon a piece of paper, in 
this way showing the blood supply to the brain and 
so telling the story of its activity. One of the interest- 
ing things that Dr. Mosso discovered by this means 
was that even during sleep the brain responds to out- 
side disturbances. Any noise in the room, though not 
loud enough to awaken the sleeper, made a change in 
the record that was being made by the brain. It 
caused a certain amount of activity of the brain, 
which drew an increased amount of blood to that 
organ and so made the sleep less sound. 



One is not awakened so readily by a noise to which 
he is accustomed as by a strange noise. We may get 
used to noise so that we are able to sleep Bedlam in 
through it ; but even then the sound im- °"^ "^®s- 
pressions pouring into the brain have some effect 
upon us, making our sleep less sound and restful. A 


person living in the midst of noise such as is common 
to-day in our large cities gets no really complete rest 
day or night. Asleep or awake, the nerve centers 
are constantly receiving a torrent of irritating noises. 
Nois}^ factories are permitted to locate in the center 
of residential districts. Locomotives and factories are 
allowed to blow powerful whistles and steam sirens 
which in some cases make the windows rattle a mile 


away. In these days, when every one can afford a 
dollar watch, these air-piercing sounds to summon 
people to their work are not necessary. Then there 
is the trolley car, with its "screamer," the cry of the 
newsboy and the huckster, and the screeching of the 
horns of automobiles flying over the country in all 
directions. This great increase of noise comes just when 
people are beginning to live out of doors as much as 
possible, and windows are kept wide open day and night. 

It has been shown that the nervous system has a 
kind of invisible armor against harmful influences, 
which the physiologist calls the quality of resistance. 
But this resistance of the nerve cells requires the ex- 
penditure of energy, so that the nervous system is 
constantly taxed to maintain protection against the 
great volume of noises. A person who is kept in a 
noisy place continually finds it difficult to adjust 
himself to stillness. A boy who had spent his life in 
the ceaseless uproar of a great city, upon his first visit 
to the country cried out, "Oh, it is too much! the 
stillness hurts !" 

"What we need now," says Dr. Lyman Abbott, 
"is a National Crusade for Quiet. It is not a matter 
Preventing of sentiment, nor even a matter of comfort ; it 
noise. is a matter of sanity, of thoughtfulness for 

the sick, and of decent consideration for the nerves of 
a nation." 

In respect to the suppression of noise, the city of 
Berlin sets an example to the world. Berlin is one of 


the most active cities of the world, yet its inhabitants 
never hear a steam whistle, the rattle of wagons, the 
shriek of a locomotive, or a huckster's cry. Even 
musical sounds, such as piano-playing, are not per- 
mitted after a certain hour at night nor before a certain 
hour in the morning. 

A number of large cities in this country have already 
abolished the blowing of steam whistles and the ringing 
of bells in the freight yards. Many of the largest 
factories use no whistle or steam signals, but their 
army of employees come to their work by the clock, 
and the starting up of the engine is the signal for the 
beginning of work. Muffling or sound-deadening de- 
vices are available for application to engines. When 
it is absolutely necessary to make a loud noise there 
is no reason why, as has been suggested, the sound 
should not be musical instead of nerve-racking. Pref- 
erence is being given in some places to those forms of 
street-paving which combine durability with sound- 
muffling qualities. In some cities there is a movement 
to establish "zones of quiet" around all the school 
buildings and hospitals. Should you approve such 
movements as these .? 

The condition of the body as well as the conditions 
in the environment have their effect upon one's sleep. 
People who are happy and contented usually ^he effect 
sleep well. But sleep is most likely to be of drugs on 
disturbed in persons who are suffering from ^^^^^' 
worry, anxiety, fright, a bad conscience. People 



suffering from insomnia, or sleeplessness, sometimes 
resort to drugs to make them sleep. One of the most 
noted nerve specialists of this country says that "Any 
drug that will put a man to sleep will do him harm in 
some way," It may in extreme cases sometimes be 
necessary to use drugs for a short time in order to 
avoid the greater injury that would be caused by loss 

of sleep. But it 
is an important 
point to remember 
that the continued 
use of drugs to in- 
duce sleep always 
results in chronic 
i7isomnia. A per- 
son who gets into 
the habit of using 
morphine, for in- 
stance, will be- 
come unable to 
rest without it, 
and he must keep on increasing the dose in order to 
get any effect from it. His system becomes filled 
with the poison until he is good for nothing and is 
likely to end up in the insane asylum. 

A regular hour for retiring is conducive to sleep and 
therefore to health. The keeping of irregular hours is 
a bad habit that sometimes causes insomnia. Young 
people who are ambitious and who want to get through 

Wholesome exercise out of doors is better 
than drugs to cure sleeplessness. 


a college course, or make money, or gain time for 
any work, sometimes try to do so by shortening their 
hours of rest. But nature is not to be cheated in this 
way. ''Whoever takes up life beforehand," says Dr. 
Johnson, "by depriving himself of rest and refreshment, 
must not only pay back the hours, but pay them back 
with usury." 

A simple and harmless remedy for sleeplessness, and 
one which should be known to every one, is the neutral 
bath. This is simply a bath in an ordinary bathtub 
taken just before going to bed. The important thing 
is to have the temperature just right. The tempera- 
ture should be 92° to 96°. Never more nor less. The 
duration of the bath is usually about half an hour, at 
the end of which time drowsiness will be experienced, or 
the bather may even fall asleep in the bath. In very 
obstinate cases, the duration of the bath may be ex- 
tended to an hour or two. This simple remedy almost 
never fails when faithfully applied. 

Health Problems 

1. How many hours do you sleep every night.'' Do your 
parents sleep as many hours as you do ? 

2. How many hours a day does a baby usually sleep .'' Is this 
necessary .? Why .? 

3. Describe some person you have seen who has been losing a 
good deal of sleep. 

4. Have you slept in a room with the windows closed ? How 
did you feel when you waked up ? 

5. What makes people sometimes talk or walk in their sleep ? 


6. Perhaps you have noticed that your shoes sometimes seem 
tighter in the morning than they are later in the day. What 
causes this ? 

7. Why do people become pale when they are very tired ? 

8. Write a little essay on Sound Sleep, telling all the conditions 
necessary for complete rest. 

9. Why is it that a nurse often sleeps soundly through a great 
deal of noise, but wakes instantly when her patient moans or 
rings the bell ? 

10. Listen to the noises you hear when you wake up in the 
morning. What are the loudest and most unpleasant ? Could 
they be avoided ^ 

11. If a Crusade for Quiet should be started in your community, 
what noises do you think could be done away with ? Are your 
streets paved with material that has sound-muffling qualities ? 

12. What means should you suggest for inducing a wakeful 
person to sleep ? 

Review Questions 

1. What work is accomplished in our bodies while we sleep ? 

2. When a person loses sleep, how is his blood affected .^ 

3. Why is it important that a person should get as much fresn 
air as possible during sleep ? 

4. What functions are suspended during sleep ? 

5. What nerve center has control of the blood vessels ? 

6. Describe the changes that take place in the circulation during 

7. Why does excitement make us wakeful ? 

8. What effect does a hot foot bath have on a wakeful person ? 

9. Tell about the boy whom the German scientist studied. 

10. In what two ways may sleep be induced f 

11. What things are necessary for healthy sleep? 

12. When is sleep the soundest ? 


13. What has been discovered about the response of the brain 
to noise during sleep ? 

14. Do people living in noisy cities ever have complete rest ? 

15. How does stillness affect people who have been used to 
constant noise ? 

16. Explain what is meant by a Crusade for Quiet. 

17. What effect has a person's mental condition on his sleep ? 

18. What harm is caused by the use of drugs to induce sleep ? 

19. What effect on sleep has the eating of a heavy meal just 
before going to bed ? 

20. Why is it well to go to bed at the same hour every night ? 

Germ Plagues 

In an ordinary compressed yeast cake there are 
billions of living cells, or plants, that are called yeast 
Minute plants. These cells are so small that we can 
forms of not see the individuals without a microscope, 
^®' but we can see the work which masses of them 

do together. Every one is familiar with the raising 
of bread when yeast is put into it. Any one can show 
the working of yeast by putting a few teaspoonfuls of 
sugar into a tumbler of warm water — just warm 
enough to hold the finger in — and then crumbling into 
this a portion of a compressed yeast cake. In a little 
while the yeast cells or plants will begin to work, and 
soon gas will be seen escaping with the appearance of a 
frothy scum on the surface. These changes are due to 
the activity of the yeast cells, which break up the sugar, 
forming alcohol and carbonic gas. It is this gas which 
we see rising in bubbles. 

Minute, invisible forms of life exist everywhere 
about us. They are so small that they can not be seen 
by the naked eye, but if they fall upon a suitable food, 
such as the cut surface of a boiled potato or a slice of 



moist bread or cheese, they will increase in number so 
rapidly that in a few days they will form spots or 
"colonies" which are easily visible. The air always 
contains a greater or smaller number of these invisible 
forms of life, but, fortunately, they are usually not 

Our forefathers from remote times until a few decades 
ago lived without knowing the important fact that there 
are vast numbers of plants and animals so minute that 
one can see them only with the aid of a powerful magni- 
fying glass. But when the microscope was perfected, 
people began to understand that there is a world of liv- 
ing things of which many have never even dreamed. 
Some one has spoken of this newly discovered world 
as that of the "infinitely little." As we have come to 
know more about these microscopic plants and animals, 
we have come to realize how important they are. They 
do much of our work, such as preparing our food, carry- 
ing off and destroying our waste material, and per- 
forming other necessary and useful tasks. Some of 
them are our friends. They ripen our cream for butter- 
making, preserve fresh food for cattle in silos, purify 
sewage by eating up the filth, make the soil fertile, and 
do us many services of this nature. Many of them, 
however, are our enemies ; and the fact that they pro- 
duce diseases of different sorts is one reason why we 
have become so much interested in them, and why we 
are trying to discover under what conditions they grow 
and how we can control them. 


Secure some moldy fruit or vegetable, or a piece of 
moldy cheese, and allow it to dry so that it can be 
The work pulverized. Then take some fresh bread and 
of mi- cut several slices. This latter work ought to 

crobes. |^^ done in a separate place from that in which 
the moldy food is handled ; it ought to be done by a 
different person from the one who prepares the molds. 
Why .? Place each of three slices of the fresh bread on a 
sheet of blotting paper and, on two pieces of the bread, 
sprinkle a small quantity of the mold dust. Cover one 

of these with a 
glass bowl or 
some other glass 
dish. The third 
piece should 
also be covered 
with a glass. 
Those pieces which are covered should be kept moist 
by placing water on the blotter from time to 
time. Keep track of developments for a few days. 
At the end of this period describe what change 
has taken place on the uncovered piece of bread. 
What was the object in covering the bread ^ Note that 
the molds do not grow unless they have been seeded. 
If a few molds do grow on the third piece of bread, it 
simply means that the mold seeds or spores fell on it 
from the air before it was covered. 

In somewhat the same way that microbes produce 

Bread mold, greatly magnified. 


decay and rottenness in bread, fruits, and vegetables, 
special sorts of microbes produce diseases in man and 
animals. You have already learned of contagious or 
catching diseases. We know that a person who has 
smallpox, measles, or whooping cough is being attacked 
by microbes, and just as microbes may pass from one 
apple to another in a barrel, so smallpox, measles, and 
scarlet fever may pass from one person to another, or 
from the sick to the well. 

Microbes produce disease in man and animals in 
different ways. One class grows in our food materials 
and produces poisons. When these poisons are Microbes 
taken into the stomach with food, they may produce 
produce sickness or even death. Some of ^^^^^^®- 
these poisons are known as ptomaines. Instances of 
-ptomaine poisoning are frequently noticed in the news- 
papers. The dangers of ptomaine poisoning can be 
avoided by protecting food materials, especially meats, 
from the growth in them of the putrefaction or decay 
microbes or bacteria. 

Many species of microbes produce disease in man 
and animals by growing in the body of their victim. 
They live upon the tissues and fluids of the body. 
From this flesh and blood they make poisons which 
cause sickness and death. These microbes are para- 
sites. (What is a parasite }) Diseases caused in this 
way are spoken of as germ diseases. 

A particular germ is often the cause of a particular 
disease. These germs are usually named after the 


diseases they produce, as the diphtheria germ, the 
typhoid germ, or the tuberculosis germ. People never 
have these diseases unless the particular germ which 
causes them is growing in and poisoning the body. 
The disease germs always come from parent germs, or 
from the body itself, and never start from nothing, as 
some people used to think. These germs always come 
from some previous case of the disease which they 
produce. Certain of these diseases are caught by 
coming in contact with some one having the disease. 
For this reason they are called contagious (touched ; 
carried). Decay and rottenness in fruit or vegetables 
is produced in the same way, you will remember. Some 
other germ diseases are carried indirectly from the sick 
to the healthy ; as, for example, through food or drink, 
as milk or water ; and by means of insects, as flies or 
mosquitoes. These are called infectious diseases. 
There is no sharp distinction between infectious and 
contagious diseases. All contagious diseases are in- 
fectious, but all infectious diseases are not necessarily 
contagious. Why ? It should be mentioned that the 
distinction between contagious and infectious diseases 
is now considered less important than formerly. 

Among the diseases produced by microbes none is 
more important or dreadful than tuberculosis. The 
presence of tuberculosis in a family or community is 
dangerous in somewhat the same way that a rotten 
apple in a basket is dangerous to all the good apples. 
But there is this difference : it is practically impossible 


to make a rotten apple safe to put with the sound ones. 
But in the case of tuberculosis and other diseases due 
to microbes or germs, when intelligent care is used, 
people suffering from them may with a certain degree 
of safety mingle with well people. But it must always 
be remembered that a person suffering from a germ 
disease is dangerous to the people around him unless 
everybody is careful to prevent the escape of the dan- 
gerous germs from the diseased person, and the entrance 
of these germs into the body of some one else. 

Until late years nothing was known in regard to the 
cause of tuberculosis. It is scarcely 
a third of a century since tubercu- . '~^^^.''-^^^- 

losis was definitely proven ^^^ ^^^^ ^^„ ^ ^^ 

to be an infectious disease, of tubercu- ^^^ .-X 

Our ancestors thought it ^°^'^- 

was due entirely to heredity. The ^'^^'' ^^ tuberculosis. 
credit of discovering the germ cause of tuberculosis 
belongs to Dr. Robert Koch, of Germany. The dis- 
covery was announced in 1882. At the time Dr. Koch 
made his discovery, scientists were just becoming ac- 
quainted with the various disease germs of bacteria. 
Bacteria, as you have learned, are forms of plant life 
in which the individuals are so extremely small that 
they are invisible. In measuring them we use, as the 
unit of measurement, what is known as the micron, 
which is about -25W0 ^^ ^^ i^ch. Many of the bac- 
teria are only about one micron in length and they are 
rarely more than a micron in width. This means that 



250 of such bacteria placed end to end would just 
about equal the thickness of a piece of the paper on 
which this book is printed. 

Different bacteria vary greatly in shape. Some are 

minute glistening 
balls, others short 
rods, others long 
slender rods, and 
still others have a 
spiral shape. The 
bacillus or germ of 
tuberculosis is a 
straight, narrow 
rod, about half a 
micron wide, and 
five or six microns 
long. Many kinds 
of bacteria can be 
grown artificially 
by feeding with 
preparations con- 
taining meat ex- 
tract. A broth 
made very much 
like a beef con- 
somme is frequently used. To this is often added gelatine 
or agar-agar (a vegetable gelatine), and in these few sub- 
stances, or media, as the scientists say, most bacteria 
grow readily. The bacillus of tuberculosis, however, is a 

Dr. Robert Koch. 


very dainty microbe, and it will not grow in the media 
named above unless a little glycerine is added, in which 
case it grows well, but slowly. It grows very well 
upon the fluid or watery part of the blood, either human 
or animal, which has been hardened by heat. Except 
when introduced mto such media as just mentioned 
above, the tubercle bacillus does not grow outside 
of the animal body. This is very fortunate for us, 
because, if it did increase in numbers outside of the 
body, the whole world of men and animals would have 
been exterminated long before this. 

Although the germ of tuberculosis does not grow and 
reproduce outside of the body, except on special "cul- 
ture media," still it does sometimes live outside the 
body for very long periods, simply retaining its vitality, 
ready to grow when the conditions are right. This 
germ can withstand drying for months and even years. 
It may live in putrefying (rotting) or decaying material 
for a long time and in dark, dirty corners of buildings 
for years. One of the best ways of killing it is to allow 
the sunlight to reach it. It will be killed also more 
quickly in a dry than in a moist place. Hence, the 
necessity of dry, well-ventilated, and light rooms. 

Nearly every one has seen people who were thin, with 
hollow cheeks and narrow chests and who had a dry, 
hacking cough. Such people are sometimes -^hQ nature 
said to be suffering from bronchitis; but in oftubercu- 
most cases, it sooner or later appears that ^°^^^* 
they have consumption, or tuberculosis of the lungs. 


Hunchbacks have deformed spinal columns which have 
been injured and twisted on account of disease of the 
spine bones. This is one of the results of tuberculosis. 
Hip disease is common. On account of disease, the hip 
has been deformed, and the hip joint destroyed or 
stiffened so that it can not be used. If we knew the 
history of these cases, we should find that almost always 
this injury to the hip joint had been brought about by 
tuberculosis. Diseases of the bones in other parts of 
the body are frequently caused by tuberculosis. Often, 
especially in children, diseases of the intestines, which are 
serious and difficult to treat, are caused by tuberculosis. 
We have already noticed that tuberculosis is a dis- 
ease caused by the growth in the body of a germ or 
microbe known as the Bacillus tuberculosis. When the 
germ gets into the body, it grows in the tissue, destroy- 
ing the cells all around it. It also makes certain other 
cells grow, causing the production of nodules or tubercles. 
These are shown in the accompanying illustration. 
This formation of tubercles is peculiar to this disease 
and has given it the name tuberculosis. This germ may 
grow in any part of the body, but in human beings 
it grows most frequently in the lungs. When tuber- 
culosis occurs in the lungs, and especially after the 
disease has gone on for some time, it is known as 
consumption. In the United States, about nine people 
die of consumption to one that dies from some other 
form of tuberculosis ; so that consumption is by far the 
most important form of this disease. 


What is the most frequent cause of sickness and 
death ? If you were to go to the health officer in your 
city or town and ask him what was the chief -j-j^g extent 
cause of death in your community, he would of tubercu- 
almost certainly reply "Tuberculosis." If °^^^' 
your health officer had a record of the living cases of 
tuberculosis, as he really ought to have, he would tell you 
that there are far more cases of tuberculosis than of any 
other disease ; and at any one time there would probably 
be more cases of tuberculosis than there were cases of all 
other infectious or germ diseases together. So that it is 
fair to say that tuberculosis is the greatest plague with 
which the human race is afflicted, because of all diseases 
common to mankind, it is the most widespread. John 
Bunyan very appropriately called tuberculosis the "Cap- 
tain of the Men of Death." Tuberculosis causes more 
deaths each year than scarlet fever, measles, typhoid 
fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, and influenza com- 
bined. Study the chart and see how this fact is shown. 
We think of the terrible loss of life due to war, but 
tuberculosis kills many more people than war ever has 
done ; and it always keeps on with its work. It never 
grants a truce. The entire loss of life in the Franco- 
Prussian war was only about one half the loss from 
tuberculosis in Prussia alone for a single year. The 
loss of life in our country, due to tuberculosis, in any 
four years is more than half a million persons, or about 
three times the loss of men during the four years of the 
Civil War. 


In the nineteenth century there were many terrible 
wars, and it is estimated that fourteen miUion soldiers 
died on the battle field. But while these wars were go- 
ing on, thirty million people in the very same countries 
died of tuberculosis. The number of deaths in the San 
Francisco earthquake was only a little over one half 
of the loss of life every year in San Francisco from 
tuberculosis. The great earthquake in southern Italy 
destroyed many less people than die each year of 
this disease in the United States. In the United 
States, from one hundred and fifty thousand to two 
hundred thousand die every year, and, in the world, 
a million and a half. The terrible price we have to 
pay for the neglect of this disease is impressed upon us 
if we realize the fact that of the ninety million people 
now living in the United States over nine million of 
them will die from tuberculosis, unless conditions are 
improved ; and of these nine million, two hundred and 
fifty thousand will be in the state of Wisconsin. 

The waste in dollars and cents caused by the disease 
has been estimated by a number of people, and accord- 
ing to Professor Fisher we lose in the United States 
each year one billion one hundred million dollars 
(^1,100,000,000) as a result of the disease in human 
beings ; and fourteen million ($14,000,000) more as a 
result of the disease in cattle. This loss far exceeds 
the value of any crop in the United States. In fact, 
if we should lose one entire corn crop, and also the 
cotton crop, but could save one year's loss from tuber- 


culosis, we should, as a nation, be better off than we 
now are. The loss of the dairy products, the wheat, 
the forest products, the rice, and the small-fruit crops 
of a year would scarcely exceed in value the present 
loss from tuberculosis. Besides these enormous money 
losses, the human race has suffered untold miseries from 
tuberculosis. It has caused poverty and suffering be- 
yond anything that can be measured. Tuberculosis 
has helped to fill our insane hospitals and orphan 
asylums, our homes and hospitals for crippled children, 
our reformatories, and even our prisons and peniten- 
tiaries. It has deprived us at an early age of many of 
the most brilliant men and women in all periods of the 
world's progress. 

Justice Charles E. Hughes, United States Supreme 
Court, has said : 

''If we had through the misfortunes of war, or the 
sudden rise of pestilence, or through some awful 
calamity, the destruction of life that annually takes 
place on account of the spread of the white plague, we 
should be appalled. Mass meetings would be held in 
every community and demand would be made that the 
most urgent measures should be adopted. It is only 
because we are accustomed to this waste of life that we 
can look calmly on and go about our business, paying 
no attention to this enormous death toll, which our 
American people are paying." 

In a preceding chapter it was shown that the sputum 
of persons suffering from tuberculosis of the lungs 


may, and often does, contain the bacilli or germs of 
tuberculosis. These germs may be carried from one 
The spread pl^^ce to another through the sputum. In the 
of tubercu- case of persons suffering from consumption, 
losis. ^j^g germs leave the body almost entirely in 

the sputum. In the case of animals suffering from 
the disease, the meat and milk may contain the bacilli, 
and hence be the means of spreading the disease. In 
the case of both man and animals, pus, or the matter 
coming from the tubercular sores, may serve as a 
means of scattering the germs. It is generally believed 
that tuberculosis is very largely passed on from one 
person to another by means of the sputum. If this 
material is not destroyed, it dries, becomes pulverized, 
is then blown about, and may enter a well person with 
the air that is breathed. It is estimated that the 
sputum given off in twenty-four hours by a person in the 
last stages of the disease may contain as many as seven 
billion tubercle bacilli. Considering the number of 
careless consumptives, it is no wonder that the air in 
certain buildings, or localities, frequented by consump- 
tives, is loaded with germs. .^ 

When one talks, but especially when one speaks 
forcibly, coughs or sneezes, there is driven out from the 
mouth a fine spray made up of tiny drops of finely di- 
vided sputum. These droplets contain, in the case of 
consumptives, the germs of tuberculosis ; and if these 
are breathed in by a person inclined toward the disease, 
they may take their abode in him and grow vigorously. 



However, the danger of this is really great only when 
one remains very near a tuberculosis patient for a con- 
siderable length of time. At a distance of three or four 
feet there is likely to be but little danger of infection. 
From a consumptive, these little drops of sputum are 
constantly falling on the floor and the furniture and 


even on food, and it is important that this source of 
danger should be avoided. In the case of tuberculous 
ulcers, abscesses, and such diseases, the discharge 
contains the germ and must be carefully handled to 
prevent the spread of the disease. 

Cows, even when they have tuberculosis, do not 
usually cough ; hence there is little danger from their 


sputum. But the milk contains the tubercle germs, 
not only when the udder is affected, as claimed a few 
years ago, but also when the infection exists in other 
parts of the body. The United States Department of 
Agriculture has recently found that milk may become 
infected with tubercle germs through particles of manure 
falling into it. 

In cattle the disease is most often located in the 
internal organs and not in the muscles ; hence the 
danger of infection by eating meat from infected animals 
is not so great as it otherwise might be. Nevertheless, 
it has been shown that the germs are often present in the 
meat of cattle which have had tuberculosis, and were it 
not for the fact that meat is usually cooked before it is 
eaten, thus killing the germs, it would be an exceed- 
ingly active source of tuberculous infection. As it is, 
it is estimated that fully ten per cent of all cases of 
tuberculosis are contracted from tuberculous meat or 

As we have seen, tuberculosis is not inherited ; but, 
in almost all cases, it is taken by a susceptible person 
KiUing the coming into contact with some one having the 
germsoftu- disease. We need to repeat for emphasis that, 
ere osis. -^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ prevent the spread of the disease, 
we need to see that those who have it take proper care 
of themselves, so that the germs which they are giving 
off do not make their way to some one else. When one 
is suffering from consumption, as you have already 
learned, the germs are given off in the sputum in enor- 


mous numbers, and the important thing to do is to 
prevent this sputum from drying. A consumptive 
should never spit on the floor (in fact, no one ever 
should) or any place where the sputum will become dry. 
A handkerchief is perhaps the worst thing that a person 
could use. It is best to have either a spittoon, contain- 
ing some chemical substance that will destroy the bac- 
teria, or, what is better, to have little paper cups or 
napkins, which when they have been used, can be burned. 
// we could kill all the germs in the sputum of those suffering 
from tuberculosis, the disease would rapidly diminish and 
perhaps in time disappear from the world. 

It is possible for the germs of tuberculosis to be 
transmitted from cows to human beings, particularly 
children, through milk. In order not to get disease by 
drinking milk, it is necessar}^ that all the milk sold on 
the market or used in the home should be from cattle 
known to be free from tuberculosis. Fortunately, it is 
possible readily to test cattle for tuberculosis by means 
of what is known as the "tuberculin test." This test 
does not cost much, is easily used, and is very accurate. 
Farmers are finding that it pays to have all their 
cattle tested, because tuberculosis in cattle is as "catch- 
ing" among cattle as it is among men, and perhaps 
more so. If the disease once gets into a herd, it will be 
sure to spread unless it is promptly checked. 

Flies help to spread this disease. No one knows the 
proportion of cases that they cause, but it is very im- 
portant that flies should be kept away from food. 



This ought to be done by trying first of all to limit the 
number of flies produced. This can be done by caring 
for manure, garbage, and things of this nature, in such 
a way that the flies can not breed in these materials. 
Secondly, we should screen our houses and keep flies 

Courtesy ol Committee for Prevent iun of Tuberculosis. 

Open-air city camp for consumptives. 

out of the kitchen and the dining room, particularly. 
In addition to this, we should take especial care to 
protect all food from flies by screening shelves or 
other places where food is stored. Flies carry on their 
feet the tuberculous germs from sputum on the street, 
or in the gutter, or elsewhere. As they walk over the 



food they leave these germs, sometimes in very large 
numbers, and the disease is thus spread. They also 
carry typhoid fever germs and spread them. The com- 
mon house fly is now sometimes called the "typhoid 

One very rarely gets tuberculosis out of doors, but 
almost always 
in the house, or 
in the work- 
shop. Hence, 
it is of the very 
greatest im- 
portance to 
have houses 
and workshops 
most carefully 
when people 
having con- 
sumption are 
present, and es- 
pecially when 

they leave. Where people having consumption occupy 
buildings and are careless, these buildings become real 
tuberculosis nests, or breeding places. It is a matter 
of extreme importance, therefore, when one moves into 
a house which other people have lived in, to find out 
whether the disease existed there, and if it did to have 
the house properly disinfected before going into it. 

Courtesy of Committee for Prevention of Tuberculosis. 

Curing consumption in the city. Patient living 
on the roof. 


This is a matter which must never be overlooked, and 
no one having a family in his or her care should move 
into an infected house until it has been properly pre- 
pared, by being most thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. 
A very important part of the work of prevention of 
tuberculosis is the development and maintenance of the 
normal or natural vigor of the body, or the 
means of Conservation of health tone. The person who 
preventing is in ill health, or in a state of low vitality for 
tubercuio- ^^\l2iteveT cause is much more liable to be 


attacked by tuberculosis, as well as by other 
diseases, than is a person in good health and vigor. 
Among the things which may be considered as help- 
ing to cause tuberculosis are certain kinds of work, over- 
crowding in homes, schools, and workshops, because of 
poor ventilation, unhealthful conditions, dust, and bad 
housing, for these lower the health tone. 

The comparative frequency of tuberculosis among 
people of different occupations has been studied. Per- 
sons who work indoors head the list, while farmers and 
other outdoor workers are lowest in the list. Where one 
is free to choose his own work, it is worth while, before 
he makes a selection, to consider the relative healthful- 
ness of various occupations. It seems probable that 
many kinds of work can be made less dangerous than 
they are now. The chief reason why it has not been 
done in the past is because the importance of preventing 
disease has not been realized. The young people who 
are growing up should and will undoubtedly do much in 



this direction. It is not merely a question of indoor 
and outdoor occupation, for some of the outdoor oc- 
cupations have a marked influence in producing con- 
sumption. Statistics show that the percentage of 
tuberculosis among quarrymen is higher than it is 
among many indoor workers. Why .' 

Overcrowding in houses helps to make people more 
likely to have 
diseases, espe- 
cially tubercu- 
losis. If we 
should count 
up the number 
of people who 
live in one- 
room apart- 
ments, com- 
pared with the 
number who 
live in apart- 
ments of two, 

three, four, or more rooms, we should find that 
there are not so very many ; but if we should com- 
pare the amount of sickness and death among those 
in the single-room apartments with the amount among 
those who have more room, we should find that 
the percentage of sickness and death would be very 
much greater ; and any one who is obliged to live 
in crowded quarters, in either the home or the work- 



shop, is taking a much greater risk of contracting disease 
than the people who have more space. Sometimes 
people who could have plenty of room, if they wished, 
coop themselves up in cramped quarters for the sake 
of convenience, or to keep .warm. If they would use 
a larger space, exercise more, and if necessary, spend 
a little more money on fuel, they would be better off. 

The lack of fresh, pure air in the house or the work- 
room or the schoolroom keeps people in a state of vital 
depression so that they are inferior workers and are 
likely to take diseases. Far too many buildings are 
without good light and proper means of ventilation. 
In olden times, methods of constructing houses were 
much inferior to the present, and on this account 
buildings were far less tight than they are to-day. And 
then, too, the method of heating was at one time entirely 
by means of open fireplaces. Under these conditions, 
special means of ventilation were not needed as they 
are at the present time, with air-tight buildings and our 
steam and hot-water plants. 

All buildings where a number of people are working 
should be provided with a special mea^is for bringing in 
pure air. The constant change of air in an ordinary liv- 
ing room, called ventilation, may take place by natural 
means, but in larger rooms and buildings, where there 
are a good many people, mechanical means should be 
employed to change the air forcibly. This can be done 
by the use of fans which drive pure air into, or which 
draw the impure air out of, the room. In some build- 



ings both systems, forcing in and drawing out, are used. 
Public buildings, such as factories, workshops, stores, 
and schoolhouses, as well as private homes, should in 
these days be 
built around a 
good ventilat- 
ing system, as 
they were for- 
merly built 
around a chim- 
ney. In case 
buildings must 
be used with- 
out special 
means of venti- 
lation, a great 
deal may be 
done by bring- 
ing pure air in 
through the 
window and 
other openings. 
In order to 
secure a con- 
stant supply of 
fresh air, it is necessary to train the sense of smell so that 
it will detect impure air. We are likely to grow care- 
less in regard to this ; but any one who understands 

Courtesy of National Cash Register Co. 

Notice the ventilation in this factory building. 



the importance of pure air may after a while become 
so sensitive to bad air that he will be uncomfortable 
in it. Some people think of such a person as a 
"crank," but in reality he is very wise, and we ought 
to follow his example and demand pure air for our 

lungs, as we now de- 
mand pure food for our 
stomachs, and clean 
clothes for our bodies. 

Our houses are too 
frequently in an un- 
healthful condition, due 
to lack of proper clean- 
ing. This sometimes 
occurs because people 
who have charge of a 
home have not been 
brought up to appreciate 
that cleanliness is next 
to godliness, and im- 
mensely important. But 
it is probable that such 
persons are compara- 
tively few. Most people would like to keep their houses 
clean, but on account of conditions beyond their control, 
many have scarcely the time or strength for it. We can 
overcome these difficulties only by helping to change the 
social conditions for such people ; and we can do a great 
deal more than might at first be thought possible. 

One should never sweep without be- 



Our ways of cleaning are not all so good as they 
might be. For instance, in sweeping with a dry broom, 
we stir up a good deal of dirt from its hiding places ; 
much of this dirt merely gets into the air in the right 
form to breathe. It is perhaps true to say that dry 
sweeping, instead of making a place more healthful, 

The best method of cleaning is with a vacuum cleaner. 

really makes it more dangerous. The same thing is 
true in regard to methods of dry dusting. The feather 
duster, or the dry dust cloth which is shaken in the 
room, is a very good way of getting dust into the air 
and of not getting rid of it properly. 

The best way to clean is with a good vacuum cleaner. 
By means of this all the dirt is taken out of the house 


without stirring up dust. There are, however, some 
inferior cleaners which throw the dirt back into the 
room, and these, Hke the broom, must be considered 
as enemies of heahh. Where vacuum cleaners are not 
possible, a carpet sweeper may be used, or something 
may be put on the floor, such as wet strips of paper, 
tea leaves, or some of the prepared dust-layers. For 
dusting, special cloths may be bought or prepared 
which hold the dirt, or a damp cloth may be used. 

Many houses are built over damp and dark cellars. 
This is very wrong. There is no excuse for a dirty 
cellar. Sometimes cellars and halls in apartment 
houses are not properly cleaned, because no ow^ person 
has complete control of them. They are neglected 
on the principle of "Every one's business is nobody's 

Damp cellars are very generally known to be un- 
healthful. Few landlords would be willing to live 
over damp cellars themselves, and no landlord ought 
to be permitted to allow his tenants to live in such sur- 
roundings. In these days when cement is so cheap and 
so generally used, there seems no excuse for it. 

The cellar must be ventilated and lighted. Many 
germs grow best in dark damp places. The perishable 
things which are usually placed in a cellar furnish good 
food for germs and encourage their growth if not prop- 
erly cared for. From many a dark damp hole under 
the house ascends a pestilential flood of germs con- 
tinually through cracks in the floor, and whenever the 



cellar door is opened. The air of the cellar should be 
kept as clean and sweet as that of any other part of 
the house. Air and light hinder the growth of con- 
tamination molds and germs. Frequent whitewashing 
and occasional disinfection are excellent means of keep- 
ing a vegetable cellar free from air-polluting germs, 
besides cut- 
ting off the 
vermin likely 
to grow and 
hide in such 

houses are 
well kept in- 
side, but have 
dirty and un- 
sanitary back 
yards. The 
back yard 
ought to be as 
clean as the front yard, and some means of taking care 
of the necessary refuse about any building should 
be provided. The plan of hanging bags so that they 
can be readly filled with old paper and tin cans is 

Garbage should also be carefully taken care of. In 
the city, where it is collected, it is important to have 
for it cans or boxes properly protected from flies. 

It is important to have all garbage carefully and 
regularly removed and buried or treated so as 
to destroy germs. 


Where the garbage must be cared for on the place, this 
can be done by burying it or burning it. 

Another thing that should be especially attended to 
about the house, Or any building occupied by people, 
and especially the schoolhouse, is the plumbing. De- 
fective plumbing allows the escape of gases and odors 
into the house, and these are known to be active means 
of lowering the health tone. 

Dust, either inside or outside of the house or school 
building, when breathed into the lungs, is harmful. 
It undoubtedly is the cause of disease, and especially 
of diseases of the lungs, such as consumption. Some 
kinds of dust are much more irritating, and so harmful, 
than others. Metallic dust, especially when the par- 
ticles have sharp, cutting edges, is likely to be very 
injurious ; the dust caused in making knives and forks, 
and so on, is very bad for the health. Other dusts are 
not so bad, but they may cause serious changes in the 
lungs. Hard dust, such as that produced by working 
on stone, is likely to be harmful. Coal dust acts in the 
same way. When these little particles of dust are 
breathed in, they make their way from the air cells to 
certain parts of the lungs, where they gather in large 
numbers. They are carried to these tissues by the 
white blood corpuscles. The effect of the gathering of 
these particles in the lungs is the most easily seen where 
coal dust is breathed in ; and if it were possible for us 
to see the lungs of those who handle coal, and those who 
live in big cities, especially where a great deal of soft 



coal is burned, we should notice that parts of the lungs 
were coal black in color, and in this respect would be 
very different from the lungs of a person who had always 
lived in the free, open country. The bad effects of the 
constant breathing of dust-laden air are easily shown 
when the death rate from consumption in different 
occupations is 

The light- 
ing of a house 
is a matter of 
no small im- 
Houses ought 
to be so ar- 
ranged that 
the sunlight 

will enter There is plenty of light and fresh air in this 

through at 

least one window, in every room, during the course 
of the day. Those rooms that are the most used 
should be the best lighted. It is important, then, 
to build houses with reference to the lighting. It 
is not at all necessary that a house should face 
the street, or even that it should be built facing a 
beautiful outlook. Houses ought always to be built 
with reference to the sunlight. The size and arrange- 
ment of the windows should depend upon what is the 
most healthful and not upon what looks best, although 


it is perfectly true that houses can be made suitable to 
live in, and at the same time beautiful to look upon. 
The amount of window space in a room should he at least 
one fifth of the floor space. 

The necessity for light in buildings was realized long 
before the real reason was discovered. There is an 
Italian proverb that says, "Where the sunlight does not 
enter, the physician does." One reason, at least, why 
this is true, is that the sunlight kills the disease germs. 
Sunlight is, as we say, a good germicide or germ- 
killer. In building a house, the first thing to be thought 
of should be the effect which the location and arrange- 
ment would have upon the health of those who are to 
live in it. It is not enough, however, to have properly 
constructed buildings. They must be sensibly used. 
Windows are of little use if the shades are always drawn, 
or the blinds always closed. A large bedroom or living- 
room may easily be overcrowded. Sometimes people 
who have all the room they need, live in a little ill- 
smelling kitchen in the daytime, and a stuffy, foul bed- 
room at night. These people, of course, do not realize 
how bad such a life is for themselves and their children. 
Warmth is of course necessary, but warmth with over- 
crowding and lack of pure, fresh air and sunshine may 
lead to disease and early death, while pure air and sun- 
shine, even with some discomfort from cold, build up 
the resistance of the body, and promote vigor, freedom 
from disease, and long life. There are many things 
worse for health than being cold — for instance, being 



overcrowded, and having too little pure, fresh air, and 
bright, life-giving sunshine. 

It is sometimes supposed that these ills which we have 
been talking about are found only in the city, but 
this is not true. Housing conditions are often as bad 
in the country 
as they are in 
the city. It 
is true that 
in the country 
there is plenty 
of pure air 
and bright 
sunshine, and 
frequently the 
houses are 
large enough, 
but the people 
are likely to be 
overcrow d ed 

Courii'sj (jf Ciriuniittcc tor Prevention uf Consumption. 

in ceriain Every one should be regularly examined for tu- 
rooms as the berculosis, as a precaution to himself and for 

k* 1 1 OTHERS. 

itchen and 

sleeping rooms, for short periods of time in the 
summer, and long periods in winter. The desire to 
save money has led people to be careless about health- 
ful conditions ; and small rooms are frequently built 
and used because they do not require much fuel for 
heating. This is a poor way of saving, as people 


would readily understand if they stopped to think 
of the matter. The cost of a doctor's bill and perhaps 
a funeral may easily more than offset the "saving" in 
fuel and sufficient room. 

Health Problems 

1. Try to make an experiment which will show there are living 
things so small that we cannot see the individuals but we can see 
the results of their growth. 

2. When people can cherries, pears, and other fruits why do 
they try to make the cans air-tight ? 

3. Take a good, sound apple, and place it so that it touches a 
rotten one. Then take another sound one, wrap it in waxed 
paper, and place it so that it touches the rotten one. Observe 
what happens to the sound apples after a few days. Explain. 

4. What is meant by a contagious disease 'I Does a well person 
have actually to touch a sick person in order to take his disease? 

5. What is meant by a preventable disease? Mention ways of 
preventing such diseases. 

6. If you can do so, expose a gelatine or agar plate to the air 
for a few minutes. Then cover it up, and leave it in a warm place 
for a few days. Describe and explain what you find on it. 

7. What is the meaning of a "culture" of a germ, as of tuber- 
culosis ? 

8. Does your town or city have an "anti-spitting" law? If 
so, what are the provisions of the law ? Is it right to have such a 
law? Why? 

9. Does your town or city have a milk ordinance ? If so, what 
are its provisions ? Why was the law made ? 

10. Write a theme on this topic : "Ways and Means of Reduc- 
ing Tuberculosis in this Community." 


Review Questions 

1. What are cells? Describe them. 

2. What useful things do some microbes perform ? What 
harm do some of them do ? 

3. What causes the raising of bread ? What causes mold on 
bread, vegetables, and similar things ? 

4. In^ what two ways do microbes produce disease ? Explain 
what is meant by ptomaine poisoning. 

5. What is an infectious disease.'' A contagious disease .f' 

6. Is tuberculosis an infectious or a contagious disease ^. 

7. What causes tuberculosis .^ Why did our forefathers think 
it was a hereditary disease .^ 

8. Tell about the tuberculosis bacillus. What is the best 
way to kill it ? 

9. Describe a person you have seen who had consumption. 

10. What often causes a back to hunch ? A hip to become 
diseased .^ 

11. What disease causes more deaths than any other in the 
world .^ 

12. Explain how people ill with consumption may give the 
disease to others. 

13. Tell just how a consumptive should take care of himself 
so as to prevent the spread of the disease. 

14. How may cows be the cause of tuberculosis among people } 
Is the meat of these cows dangerous ? The milk .^ 

15. What part do flies have in the spread of tuberculosis .^ 
How may this be prevented ? 

16. How may one develop and preserve the "health tone" of 
the body, so that he will not be liable to get tuberculosis .^ 

17. What occupations are likely to incline a person toward the 
disease ? Why ? What occupations are healthful ^ 

18. Explain how overcrowding may assist in the spread of 


19. What effect has dust in the spread of tuberculosis ? 

20. Tell how a house should be built, lighted, and cleaned so 
that the occupants will be able to preserve their "health tone." 

21. What is said about the effect of dirty cellars on the health 
of the occupants of a house ? 

22. How may defective plumbing be the cause of lowering 
the "health tone" ? 

23. Tell what you think are the best ways of preventing the 
spread of tuberculosis in a community. 

Living Long and Well 

In the sixteenth century the average length of human 
Hfe was between eighteen and twenty years. At the 
close of the eighteenth century it was a little more than 
thirty years. To-day it is about forty-five years. The 
average length of life has, then, more than doubled in 
the last three hundred and fifty years. 

What has caused this great increase in the average 
length of life ^ Is it because men now live to a greater 
age than in the past ? On the contrary, there are few 
examples of longevity in the last two or three hundred 
years that can at all compare with those of former 

One thing that will help us to find the cause is the 
fact that the average length of life is difi^erent in differ- 
ent countries. In India it is only twenty-five, while in 
Germany it is forty-three, and in Sweden forty-five. 
In Germany and Sweden great attention is given to 
hygiene ; the health of the people is safeguarded on all 
sides by health boards and sanitary regulations. In 
India, on the contrary, among the masses of the people, 
there is no attention whatever given to hygiene or 

25 1 


sanitation. We find that the increased average length 
of life in various parts of the world exactly corresponds 
to the attention given to hygiene. 

It is, of course, easily understood that the average 
length of life depends upon the death rate. Where the 
. death rate is high, the average length of life 
tary science is shorter than where the death rate is low. 
has accom- "fj^g Jq^ average of former centuries was 
^ ^ ^ ' largely the result of the plagues and pestilences 
which in the Middle Ages swept over the world un- 
checked. Millions of people were sometimes carried 
off in a single year, and whole cities and provinces were 

In the fourteenth century the "Black Death," now 
thought to have been the bubonic plague, destroyed 
about twenty-five million people, — one fourth the 
population of Europe. 

In 1466, forty thousand people died of plague in Paris. 

In 1570, two hundred thousand people in Moscow 
and vicinity were carried off by plague. 

In the year of the Great Plague of London, 1665, the 
population of that city was estimated at 460,000. 
Two thirds of these, or about 300,000, fled to escape 
the disease, and the grass grew in the streets of the 
deserted city. Of the 160,000 who were left, 68,596 
died of the plague. 

At the present day the terrible epidemic diseases that 
formerly caused such a high death rate — the plague, 
cholera, typhus and yellow fever, smallpox — have 


been largely overcome by the discoveries of modern 
science. These diseases are not, however, destroyed ; 
they are only held at bay. Any carelessness in pre- 
venting them would open the door for them to return 
upon us. Our freedom from smallpox, for instance, 
we owe to the practice of vaccination. The elimina- 
tion of rats is now recognized as a necessary safeguard 
against bubonic plague, which may invade any American 
community that fails to destroy its rats. 

Such diseases as scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhoid 
fever, measles, tuberculosis, have also been greatly 
reduced by hygienic measures, and this has also reduced 
the death rate. In London during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries the death rate was eighty per thou- 
sand ; it is now only fifteen per thousand. The death 
rate from tuberculosis has diminished in England two 
thirds in seventy years. In Munich the annual death 
rate from typhoid fever was reduced from twenty-nine to 
one by filling up the cesspools and improving the water 
supply. The United States Census Bureau reports 
show that the average annual death rate from typhoid 
in certain cities has been reduced from 69.4 per 100,000 
to 19.8 by the introduction of pure water supplies. 

But, although so much has been accomplished, much 
yet remains to be done in this line. "It is within the 
power of man," said Professor Pasteur, "to rid himself 
of every bacterial disease." 

In a report to the National Conservation Committee, 
Professor Fisher stated that of the 1,500,000 deaths that 


now occur in this country every year, at least 600,000 
— more than one third — are needless. He obtained 
■y^at re- ^^^^ information by taking up in order each of 
mains to the more than ninety causes of death accord- 
be done. -j^g ^^ ^]^g United States Census, and obtaining 
from experts on each of the diseases an estimate of 
how many of the deaths were preventable. On this basis 
it worked out that if the people who now die needlessly 
could be given the lives that they should have had, the 
average duration of life in the whole country would be 
increased hy fifteen years. Instead of being forty-five, 
it might be sixty. 

Among the causes of death now known to be pre- 
ventable are tuberculosis, diarrhea and enteritis, 
pneumonia, violence, typhoid fever, and diphtheria. 
The following table shows the years that would be 
added to the average life span if these causes of early 
death were prevented by means which are now well 
known and practical. 

Tuberculosis 2 

Diarrhea and enteritis 2.32 

Pneumonia 0.94 

Violence 0.86 

Typhoid fever 0.65 

Diphtheria 0.53 


The addition of the 7.3 years now lost by these causes 
alone to the 85,000,000 persons now living in the 
United States would give a total of more than 620,000,- 


000 years of human life saved, the equal of more than 
15,000,000 lives of the present average length in this 
country, more than one sixth of the total population. 
What a marvelous and beneficent accomplishment the 
saving of this amount of human life would be ; some- 
thing much better worth while than the building of 
dreadnaughts or the erecting of costly monuments for 
the dead. The same effort and the same care now 
devoted to the saving of animal life would not only save 
this 7.3 years of life to every man, woman, and child 
in the United States, but would add many more years. 

It is an honor to a country to have a low death rate. 
It shows, as we have seen, that much attention is given 
to sanitation, and that the hygienic condition ^.^^ ^j^g 
of the country is good. It does not, however, measure of 
give us the true measure of the vigor of a race. ^^'^^ ^^^°^" 
The true measure of racial vigor is not the increase of 
life for all, but the number of persons who attain great 
age. It is also shown in the power of the race to resist 
organic or chronic diseases. 

From this standpoint we find that while the average 
length of life has doubled, the race has at the same 
time actually become weaker instead of stronger. This 
is because personal hygiene has not kept pace with 
public hygiene. (What is the difference between these 
two .?) 

Statistics show that this race decay is going on so 
rapidly that even within the last thirty years, while 
there has been a marked decrease in the death rate up 


to forty years, there is an increase in the death rate for 
people over forty years of age. In Massachusetts, 
where the records have been most carefuHy kept, for 
persons from forty to fifty years there is an increase of 
8.3 per cent ; from fifty to sixty, the increase is 17.6 per 
cent; from eighty years and upwards, 10. i per cent. 
So a man of seventy years of age to-day has only about 
four fifths as good a chance to live as a man of the same 
age had thirty or forty years ago. There is also a 
very great increase in the number of persons afilicted 
with chronic diseases. 

Strange as it may seem, the condition which these 
figures indicate is partly the result of the increased 
attention given to public hygiene. The plagues and 
pestilences of former centuries weeded out the weak and 
puny individuals whose resistance was feeble, sparing 
the strong, healthy, and pure-blooded. The result was 
the survival of the fittest. 

Public sanitation, quarantine laws, and hygienic 
measures serve a most useful purpose in preventing 
epidemic diseases ; but this protection results in keeping 
alive a lot of weak persons who would otherwise be 
weeded out. So while the death rate is diminished and 
the average length of life increased, the race is weakened 
instead of strengthened thereby, because these feeble 
persons transmit their weaknesses and deficiencies to 
future generations. 

What is to be done to check this race decay and 
actually to improve the race ? The thing that is 


needed is not less attention to public hygiene, but 
more attention to personal hygiene. 

Just as it is an honor to a nation through its attention 
to public hygiene to have low death and sickness rates 
and a high average length of life, so it is an honor to an 
individual, by attention to personal hygiene, to keep 
himself in a high state of health and vitality and live a 
long and useful life. Let us glance at some examples 
of those who have attained this honor. 

Going back to the early ages, we notice the uni- 
formity with which men lived to advanced gome ex- 
age. According to the ancient records, Abra- ampies of 
ham lived to 175 ; his son Isaac died at the i^^g^^ty- 
age of 180; and Ishmael, his other son, at the age of 
137. Jacob, the son of Isaac, lived to 147 years of age. 

Pliny tells us that in the time of the Emperor Ves- 
pasian there lived in the portion of Italy between the 
Apennines and the Po, 134 persons who were more 
than one hundred years old. Of these persons three 
had reached the age of 140 ; four, 135 ; four, 130 ; two, 
125; fifty-seven no. Where could such a group be 
found at the present time .? 

The greatest authentic recorded age of our era is 
that of Kentigern, known by the name of St. Mungo, the 
founder of the Cathedral of Glasgow, who died in the 
year 600 at the age of 185 years. An Hungarian peas- 
ant, Pierre Zortay, is also said to have reached this 
great age and to have been able to walk a mile a few 
days before his death. His great age was attributed 


to the extreme simplicity of his diet, which consisted 
of simple cakes of grain with milk and buttermilk. 

An Englishman named Thomas Parr lived in the 
reigns often sovereigns and died in 1635, aged 152 years 
and 9 months. He was a poor peasant and did hard 
work up to the age of 130, when he is said to have 
threshed corn. He might have lived longer than he 
did, but his fame reached the ears of the Earl of Arundel, 
who wished to exhibit him at court. He was taken to 
London in a specially prepared litter and presented to 
Charles I. But the change of air and the change from 
the accustomed simplicity of his diet affected him, and 
he died at the Earl of Arundel's house. The king 
ordered the celebrated Dr. Harvey, who discovered the 
circulation of the blood, to make an examination of the 
body after death. He could find no traces of disease, 
but found all the internal organs in an unusually perfect 
state. Even the cartilages were not ossified ; the rib 
cartilages were as elastic as those of a young man. 
Thomas Parr was buried in Westminster Abbey, among 
the great statesmen, warriors, poets, and others who 
have been an honor to their country, with his claim to 
greatness this : that he had kept his body in a perfect 
state of health for more than a century and a half. 

The examples of great longevity are nearly all to be 
found in the lowly ranks of life, among peasants and 
laborers, persons of simple and temperate habits. 
Many of them have lived on a simple diet of bread, milk, 
and vegetables. Among the early Christians, the her- 


mits who retired to the desert and hved on bread, water, 
and herbs, taking only the smallest quantity that would 
support life, lived to great age. In the list we find 
St. Anthony, 105 years; Arsenius, 120; St. Epipha- 
nius, 115, and Romanul, 120. 

Among other notable centenarians we have the noble 
Venetian, Cornaro, who lived to be nearly one hundred 
and who has left us a most interesting record ^ . . „ 

Luigi Cor- 

of the reason for his remarkable freedom from naro, a 
all physical ills at that advanced age. He Venetian 
wrote this record because he was asked by so 
many young men to tell them his manner of life. " For 
when," he says, ''they saw their parents and kindred 
snatched away in the midst of their days, and me, con- 
trariwise, at the age of eighty-one strong and lusty, 
they had a great desire to know the way of my life 
and how I came to be so." 

Cornaro injured his health greatly in his young man- 
hood by the excesses in eating and drinking common to 
men of his rank, which, he says, "caused me to fall a 
prey to various ailments, such as pains in the stomach, 
frequent pains in the side, symptoms of gout, and still 
worse, a low fever that was almost continuous." Be- 
fore he was forty years of age he was, as he tells us, 
"reduced to so infirm a condition that my physicians 
declared there was but one remedy left for my ills — 
a remedy that would surely conquer them, provided 
I would make up my mind to apply it and persevere 
patiently in its use. That remedy was the temperate 


and orderly life." He was given to understand by his 
physicians that if he wished to live he must confine his 
diet to light and simple foods and take these only in 
small quantities. 

Cornaro loved life, he did not want to die, and he saw 
that his only hope lay in the change of his habits. 
He was evidently a man of determination of character, 
and realizing, he says, "that to live temperately and 
rationally was not only an easy matter but the duty of 
every man, I entered upon my new course so heartily 
that I never afterwards swerved from it, nor ever com- 
mitted the slightest excess in any direction." 

The result of this change was extraordinary : "With- 
in a few days I began to realize that this new life suited 
my health excellently, and persevering in it, in less than 
a year I found myself entirely cured of all my com- 

Cornaro reasoned that the manner of life that had 
cured him would be likely to keep him in health, and 
from that time he confined his diet to a very simple 
and meager diet, about half the quantity he had pre- 
viously eaten. On this diet he reached a condition of 
superb health, which continued until he died at nearly 
one hundred years of age. This is an illustration of 
what we have already learned that the majority of 
people consume about twice as much food as they 
actually need, and the superfluous half is merely a 
tax on the system. 

Cornaro experienced to the full that enjoyment of life 


which results from perfect health. "The first joy," he 
said, "is to be of service to one's beloved country." 
With his restored health he was able to devote his 
talents to the service of his country in the patronage 
of the arts, in writing, building, engineering, and agri- 
culture. He drained marshes, converting vast areas 
of waste lands into thriving agricultural areas, built 
palaces that were models of architecture, and wrote for 
future generations the secret of his own long, happy, 
useful life. 

Writing when he was between eighty and ninety years 
of age, he gives us this picture of his life at that time : 
"I live in the most beautiful part of this noble and 
learned city of Padua, and derive from it a thousand 
advantages. I . . . enjoy my several gardens and 
always find something to delight me. ... In April and 
May, as also in September and October I find other 
pleasures in enjoying a country seat of mine among the 
Euganean Hills with its fountains and gardens, and 
above all its commodious and beautiful abode, also my 
villa in the plain, which is very fine with streets and 
a square, and a church much honored — a country, 
which once deserted on account of bad air and marshy 
waters, is now by my labors all rich in inhabitants and 
fields most fertile, so that I may say with truth that in 
this spot I have given to God an altar, a temple, and 
souls to adore him. . . . Here I take pleasure with 
men of fine intellect, architects, painters, sculptors, 
musicians, and agriculturists." 


Of his physical condition at this advanced age he 
says : "I am continually in health, and I am so nimble 
that I can easily get on horseback without the advan- 
tage of the ground, and sometimes I go up high stairs and 
hills on foot. Then I am ever cheerful, merry, and well 
contented, free from all troubles and troublesome 
thoughts, in whose places joy and peace have taken up 
their standing in my heart." 

Mr. Edison, the great inventor, tells us that his 
great-great-grandfather read the life of Cornaro, and 
by carrying out the principles he obtained from this 
book, lived to the age of 102 years. Edison's great 
grandfather studied the same book, and lived to be 
103 years old. Edison's grandfather adopted the same 
principles and died at the age of ninety. Edison's 
father followed in his daily life the example of his 
father, and lived ninety-four years, passing away with- 
out any apparent illness. Edison himself adopted the 
same principles and tells us that as a result he has 
been sick only four times in sixty-five years. 

Another example of splendid health and vigor in 
old age was Count Tolstoy, the celebrated Russian 
r r^ , writer and social reformer. He was a lover 

Leo Tol- 
stoy, a of country life and of physical exercise. 

Russian Very early in life he began to strive after 

perfection, physical, mental, and moral. 

"My only real faith at that time," he says, "was a 

belief in perfection. I tried to perfect myself mentally. 

I studied everything that I could, and that life brought 


me in contact with. I tried to perfect my will, and 
formed rules which I tried to follow. I perfected 
myself physically, prompting my strength and agility 
with all kinds of exercises and practicing endurance 
and patience in all kinds of privations." 

In Tolstoy's boyhood he made this resolution, re- 
corded in his diary: "I shall take exercise as much as 
possible, and practice gymnastics every day, so that 
when I am twenty-five years old I shall be stronger 
than Rappean. The first day I shall hold twenty 
pounds in my outstretched arm, the next day twenty- 
one pounds, the third day twenty-two pounds, and 
so on, until at last 160 pounds in each hand, so that I 
shall be stronger than anybody among the servants." 

The effect of his outdoor life and muscular training 
was of great benefit to Tolstoy in his after life. When 
the Crimean War broke out he joined the Russian 
army and took part in the siege of Sebastopol. The 
rigors of the siege had no effect upon him, because 
of the endurance that his manner of life had developed. 
One of his comrades describing him at this time said 
that he was "an athlete who, lying upon the floor, 
could let a man weighing thirteen stone be placed on 
his hands and could lift him up by straightening his 
arms. In a tug of war ... no one could beat him." 

The Tales from Sebastopol that Tolstoy wrote at 
this time attracted the attention of the Czar, who 
issued special orders that he should be at once removed 
from a post of danger, as the life of so great an artist 


should not be risked. Tolstoy returned to St. Peters- 
burg, where he met dangers of another character. 
His writings had made him famous, fetes and dinners 
were given in his honor, and he indulged for a time in 
excesses. He did not, however, neglect his gymnastic 
exercises, but spent a good deal of time in the gymna- 
sium trying to jump over a wooden horse without 
touching a cone placed on its back, a favorite feat at 
that time. 

Tolstoy soon became disgusted with the kind of life 
he was leading at the capital, and returned to his 
country estate, Nasyana Polyana, and devoted his 
influence, talents, and strength to trying to better 
the condition of the Russian peasantry. He started 
schools for the children on his estate and he himself 
did much of the teaching for a time. All the serfs 
owned by him were given their freedom before the 
laws made it necessary. He traveled in other coun- 
tries to study their educational and municipal systems, 
visiting the universities, prisons, working men's clubs, 
and such institutions, in order to find out how he could 
best improve the condition of his own people. 

Tolstoy always enjoyed manual labor. He was 
accustomed to mow the lawns, rake the garden beds, 
and even work with the peasants in the fields. He 
learned to make and mend shoes, so that he might have 
some useful manual work to do in bad weather. "For 
me," he said, "daily exercise and physical labor are 
as indispensable as air. In summer in the country 


I have plenty of choice. I can plow or cut grass, 
but in the autumn in rainy weather it is wretched. 
In the country there are no sidewalks or pavements, 
so when it rains, I cobble and make shoes. In town, 
too, I am bored by simple walking, and I cannot 
plow or mow there, so I saw or split wood !" 

It was his belief th^t the health and peace of mind 
of the peasants was largely the result of the simplicity 
of their life and their hard work. More and more, as 
he advanced in years, he departed from the life of his 
own class and adopted that of the peasants. He rose 
early and went to work in the fields. He took part in 
plowing, cutting the corn, and labor of that nature. 
He helped widows and orphans to gather in their crops. 

Of the delights of plowing, Tolstoy wrote: "You 
cannot conceive what a satisfaction it is to plow. . . . 
It is not very hard work, as many people suppose ; it 
is pure enjoyment. You go along, lifting up and 
properly directing the plow, and you don't notice 
how one, two, or three hours go by. The blood runs 
merrily through your veins ; your head becomes 
clear ; you don't feel the weight of your feet ; and the 
appetite afterwards, and the sleep !" 

The watchword of Tolstoy's life was simplicity: 
". . . that is above all others the quality I desire to 
obtain." His habits of eating were in keeping with 
the general simplicity of his life. "I dine at home," 
he once wrote, ''on cabbage soup and buckwheat 
porridge, with which I am contented." Later in life 


he gave up meat eating because he became convinced 
that it was not the natural diet, and that the moral 
effect of the unnecessary taking of life must be harmful. 
For the same reason he put away his gun and ceased 
to engage in field sports. 

Another indulgence which Tolstoy also renounced 
as injurious and unhealthy was tobacco. "The man 
who does not smoke," he said, "saves ten years of his 
life, and the man who does not drink saves twenty." 
Writing to a friend he said, " Do you still smoke ^ 
I do not know how to rejoice sufficiently at having 
rid myself of this habit." In his old age, as in his 
youth, he was still striving after perfection, resolutely 
giving up every habit that he saw to be a hindrance to 

Late in life, Mr. Gladstone was given the popular 

nickname, "Grand Old Man," because of 

£^art ^^^ great vitality and physical vigor in old age. 

Gladstone, He was Premier of Great Britain and Ireland 

anEngUsh ^^ ^j^^ advanced age of eighty-four years. 

Mr. Gladstone was first elected to Parlia- 
ment when a young man only twenty-three years of 
age, and his parliamentary career lasted for more 
than sixty years. He was the greatest orator of his 
age, and in his prime he could be heard without diffi- 
culty by an audience of 20,000 people. One who heard 
him often said : "After the delivery of a speech of 
four or five hours in its duration, the closing words 
will ring as a bell upon the ear, without the faintest 


perception to the last of anything Uke physical ex- 

Describing him when he was over seventy years old, 
another said : "The intellectual fire is rather quickened 
than quenched, and the promise of health has been 
abundantly fulfilled in a maintenance of physical 
strength and activity that seems phenomenal. Mr. 
Gladstone will outsit the youngest member of the 
House if the issue at stake claims his vote in the pending 
division. He can speak for three hours at a stretch, 
and he will put in the three hours as much mental and 
physical energy as would suffice for the whole debate. 
His magnificent voice is as true in tone and as insen- 
sible to fatigue as when it was first heard within the 
walls of the house." Even when eighty-six years of 
age he said, "What difference does it make to me 
whether I speak to four hundred people or four thou- 

On the eve of his seventieth birthday, Mr. Gladstone 
started out on a political campaign in the midst of a 
severe winter. Day after day, sometimes twice or 
three times a day, he addressed large audiences, often 
in the open air. "Speech followed speech, none a 
repetition of the other, and all the world agreed that 
never in history had there been an equal display of 
physical and intellectual force from a man whose years 
were threescore and ten." 

Being asked the secret of his wonderful vitality, Mr. 
Gladstone answered: "There was a road leading out 


of London on which more horses died than on any 
other. Inquiry revealed the fact that it was perfectly 
level. Consequently the animals in traveling over it 
used only one set of muscles." 

Mr. Gladstone preserved his mental and physical 
health by varying his intellectual work and by vigorous 
physical exercise. Besides the immense amount of 
work which his political career made necessary, he 
wrote many books and pamphlets, the naming of which 
takes up twenty-two pages in the catalogue of the Brit- 
ish Museum. 

His ability to accomplish so much was attributed 
by him to his marvelous faculty for concentration, 
which he said was the only thing in which he differed 
from other men. He concentrated all his forces on 
whatever he chanced to be doing at the moment and 
threw his whole soul into it. 

Once in addressing a gathering of schoolboys he 
told them that if a boy ran he should run as fast as 
he could ; if he jumped, he should jump as far as he 
could. Following this advice would certainly result 
in increased capacity to run and jump. Mr. Glad- 
stone followed this principle in his own career. He 
never did anything by halves, but exerted his powers 
to the utmost and, in this way, increased his capacity. 

Mr. Gladstone's favorite recreation and hobby was 
felling trees. Stripped to his shirt, he often attacked 
the tough oaks on his estate at Hawarden and some- 
times felled a four-foot forest monarch in a day. He 


was also a great walker, going very fast and very far, 
as we should expect of such a man. 

We may presume that he himself followed the famous 
rule given to his children, to chew every mouthful of 
food thirty-two times. We suppose, too, that this 
thorough mastication had much to do with keeping 
him in health until nearly ninety years of age. A 
person who once watched him closely at a banquet 
declared that he counted his chewing movements and 
found that he exceeded his rule, often chewing each 
morsel forty times or more. 

One of the most remarkable men of this country in 
recent years, from the physical standpoint, was Captain 
Ezekiel Diamond, who at the age of 100 years 
was an active athlete, writer, and teacher of Diamond 
physical culture. One who visited him at athlete at 
the age of 114 years says that he was "able to "4 years 
lift his foot with ease to the top of his five- 
foot bookcase, read ordinary type at the proper dis- 
tance of fourteen inches without glasses, and get up 
and down stairs like a man of forty." 

Like Cornaro, Captain Diamond has written a book 
in which he tells us what he believes to be "the secret 
of a much longer life, and more pleasure in living it." 

His boyhood was spent in pioneer farm life, and 
"it is quite' probable," he says, "that I owe much of 
my lifelong health to the simple industrious habits, 
swinging the axe, digging with the hoe, mixing with 
the earth, and breathing the pure air." Having no 


trade and no education, he afterwards lived a migra- 
tory life, spending his summers in the north helping 
to build the first railroads in the United States, and 
his winters in the south in the commission business or 
superintending plantations. He also took part in the 
construction of canals, and levees, and made occasional 
trips to the West Indies and to Europe. Sixty-five 
years of his life, more than the average span, were 
spent in this way. 

Later on he went west, arriving in San Francisco as 
an emigrant. For years he operated a street car in 
that city. In his ninety-seventh year he took a posi- 
tion as night watchman in a hotel. After he was 
one hundred years old he began selling books, his 
own among the number, walking from ten to twenty- 
five miles a day. But the fire connected with the 
San Francisco earthquake in 1906 destroyed 17,000 
copies of his book and sent him at the age of no as 
a refugee to Oakland, where he slept in a church pew. 
From there he moved to a loft, into which he had to 
climb by means of a vertical ladder. 

Captain Diamond tells us in his book what he be- 
lieves has made this long life of labor possible. It 
is not a case of inheritance, neither is it accidental, 
but "is the result of a life of denial to the palate, and 
of good care to the framework of the body." 

When he was over sixty years old he suddenly, to 
his surprise, found himself to be getting old. He dis- 
covered it, he says, in this way : 


"One day I jumped from a wagon to the ground, 
and my joints did not respond with the usual rebound. 
I was startled and surprised. Resuming my place 
in the wagon I leaped to the ground again as a proof 
trial. The proof was there, for not only did the knees 
refuse to rebound but the backbone creaked and cried 
out in pain. I was humiliated." 

From this time Captain Diamond began to give 
special care to the body, not because he wanted to 
live to be old, but because he wanted "to enjoy life 
as long as it lasted." "Three things," he says in his 
book, "I have faithfully practiced for the past half 
century. The first is that of breathing the freshest 
air possible, long, deep draughts. The second is the 
selection and eating of the best bone and blood food 
at my command. The third is the use of pure water 
at proper time and temperature, never taking it ice 

Cornaro laid the chief emphasis upon limiting the 
quantity of the food. Captain Diamond lays more 
upon the selection of the food : 

"The selection of the food and drink is of vast 
importance in youth, but it does not become of first 
importance in the estimation of men until they have 
reached the meridian of life. By this time the ma- 
chinery of the physical man has been running several 
decades with but little attention, and there is rheuma- 
tism, chronic headache, liver pains, kidney troubles, 
stomach rebellions, dyspepsia, which means chronic 


constipation. It is generally known and admitted 
by the most thoughtful people that by far the greater 
amount of physical suffering is the result of eating 
too much or of eating the wrong kind of food." 

"When I began to prepare the body for long and 
healthy life, I left out of my diet slaughtered meats. 
Strong meats, often taken, are the source of all kinds 
of disease, laying the foundation for untold suffering." 

Captain Diamond gives us the following sample of 
his dinner menus : 

"Hot water, vegetable or rice and tomato soup, whole 
wheat bread, buttered or with olive oil, sweet potatoes, 
beans, fruit in season." 

He had great faith in olive oil, not only as a food 
but he frequently anointed his body with it. 

In dedicating a revised edition of his book he says : 

"After more than i lo years of active life, in possession 
and perfect use of every sense and faculty unimpaired, 
I dedicate this book to the cause of temperance in all 
things, knowing that proper care of the body, and 
selection and use of Nature's food and drink, are the 
only means of arriving at old age healthy and happy." 

Dr. Eliot, for forty years president of Harvard 
University, was asked a few years ago to make known 
President ^^^ ^^e benefit of the public the secret of the 
Eliot's marvelous vigor and activity of mind and 
testimony. j^Q^jy ^]^^^ ]^g ]^^g maintained in spite of the 

duties of his exacting position. This is his reply : 
"My health and capacity for work at seventy-seven 


years of age are unusually good. I attribute this 
result to a good constitution, moderation in eating 
and drinking, a habit of taking some exercise and 
some fresh air every day, and of avoiding all sorts of 
luxury and the constant use of any drug, such as 
alcohol, coffee, tea, or tobacco. 

"Since I was twelve years of age my sports have 
been walking, riding horseback, driving, rowing, and 
sailing ; to which, after I was sixty-five years old, I 
added riding a bicycle. I am still good for all those 
sports in moderation, and still enjoy them. 

"The use of dumb-bells and clubs has been for me 
only an inferior resort in bad weather, or when I am 
somewhat prevented from getting my exercise in the 
open air. Under such circumstances I still use light 

"In 1858, when I was a tutor in Harvard College, I 
rowed in the » Harvard boat (the first shell) in two 
regattas on the Charles River basin, in both cases for 
money prizes, the Harvard boat winning against a 
large number of competitors. The performance only 
lasted about two months, and was the only exception 
to the rule that the sports which have served and still 
serve me are individualistic, requiring no team or group 
of cooperating players. Individualistic sports can be 
carried on into middle life and old age at great advan- 
tage over sports which require the cooperation of other 

"Ever since I can remember I have been disposed to 


do every day all the mental work I could perform with- 
out fatigue, and that is still my practice — a wholesome 

"When I am asked about the habits which are most 
conducive to a long, active life, I generally answer, 
'Moderation in eating, a full allowance of sleep, and 
no regular use of any stimulant whatever ! ' " 

Health Problems 

1. From the reports of the health office in your city or county, 
find out what per cent of the deaths in your community result from 
the diseases mentioned in this chapter as needless. 

2. Do you know any people over ninety years of age who are 
still active and healthy ? If so, find out what they have done to 
preserve their health. 

3. What kind of diet seems best suited to make one long-lived ? 

4. Do many people who have used tobacco and alcohol the 
greater part of their lives live to a useful old age ? Why ? 

5. If you can do so, find out something about the oldest in- 
mates of the poorhouse in your community. See if you can tell 
what habits or conditions of life caused them to become too feeble 
to work in their old age. 

6. In the little state of Sparta, old men who were still active 
and strong were treated with honor and respect. Do you think 
this was just .? Why .? 

7. Few of the men mentioned in this chapter were wealthy. 
Most of them were hard workers. Explain. 

8. Find out in what trades or what kind of positions there are 
the greatest number of vigorous old people. Explain. 

9. Do you know people who worked in mines or factories in 
early childhood and who are healthy in old age ^ 

10. Mention some games you can play in winter which will 
help to make you strong and long-lived. Mention some you can 
play in summer. 


Review Questions 

1. What was the average length of human hfe in the sixteenth 
century ? 

2. What is the average length to-day ? 

3. Do men now live to a greater age than in the past ? 

4. What has caused the increase in the average length of life ? 

5. What is the average in India ? In Sweden ? Why is there 
such a difference ? 

6. Upon what does the average length of life depend ? 

7. What is a plague ? Mention some plagues. 

8. Tell how plagues of various kinds are being prevented. 

9. What per cent of the deaths occurring annually in this 
country are needless ? 

10. Name the preventable diseases that are causing many deaths. 

11. What is the true measure of a nation's vigor? Why.? 

12. Is the race as a whole becoming weaker or stronger .'' How 
do we know this .'' 

13. How has the increased attention given to public hygiene 
helped to make the race as a whole weaker ? 

14. What is needed to strengthen the race .'' 

15. Give some examples of longevity in early times. 

16. Tell about Thomas Parr. To what was his longevity due ? 

17. How did Cornara transform himself from a weak, sickly 
man to a strong, healthy, long-lived one ? 

18. What did Tolstoy strive for? Tell how he attained great 
physical perfection. 

19. What did Tolstoy say about the effects of tobacco ? 

20. What did Gladstone observe about the horses that traveled 
a certain London road ? 

21. Tell how he applied this to his own life. 

22. Tell about Captain Diamond. What did he recommend 
for people who wished to lead a long and useful life ? 

23. To what three things does President Eliot attribute his 
strength and long life ? 




That which upbuilds the body and increases efficiency 


Pure air 

Good food 

Pure water 

Natural defend 

Rest and sleep 


Good health habits 

Purposeful work 

ers of the body 




White bl 

That which tears down 



ive fluids 

ood cells 
tory tract 

and injures the body 

"Safety First" 

On street cars and in other places one sometimes sees 
a big red dot with the words, "Safety First." The 
purpose for this slogan is protection against accident. 
It is placed at especially dangerous places as a warning 
against accidents. Safety first means, "look out for 
danger," " be careful," — careful to keep one's self out 
of harm's way and careful that no harm shall result 
to others, through carelessness. This simple warning 
has been the means of saving many from death and 

We are constantly surrounded by invisible foes to 
life and health. A soldier on the battlefield is liable 
at any time to be hit by a bullet or a bursting shell 
and to be fatally wounded. Bullets fly so swiftly the 
soldier can not see them, but he can hear them whistle 
through the air and perhaps can see the smoke of the 
gun which fired them. Enemies of life quite as dan- 
gerous as bullets are constantly flying about us. They 
attack us on every hand ; we can never wholly escape 
them, so we must know how to avoid them as much as 
possible and how to defend ourselves against them. 

Let us consider some of the ways in which we may be 



attacked by the germs which cause disease and the 
best means of applying the principles of "safety first" 
in case of those diseases generally known as "communi- 
cable" or "catching." In each case the real cause of 
the illness is a germ or micro5ganism peculiar to the 
disease itself, which in various ways is passed around. 

It is most important to avoid disease. Not only are 
germ diseases a danger in themselves, but they break 
down vital resistance and thus open the gates for other 
serious maladies to get in. Influenza is often followed 
by pneumonia or tuberculosis, measles by impairment 
of sight and hearing, typhoid by tuberculosis, and diph- 
theria by paralysis and heart troubles. 

Most of these diseases are spread by actual contact 
with the sick or by contact with the things the sick have 
used, thus providing a carriage of the germs that cause 
the disease into the mouth or nose of the well person. 

It would be easier to avoid contagion if one always 
knew just where it would meet him. As this is not 
possible, it is important to be on guard at every point 
where it is to be expected. 

Every child can apply the following "Safety First" 
rules : 

(i) Keep the hands clean. Wash them very often. 
, Cleanliness of the hands is one very impor- 

First" tant protection against diseases that can be 
rules for communicated from one person to another. 
In certain French and English hospitals tests 
were made. Persons ill with different communicable 


diseases were cared for in the same wards with persons 
who did not have the disease, the greatest precaution 
being taken by every one caring for the sick to wash the 
hands after touching any patient, and allowing no object 
which had touched the sick one to touch another until 
it had been cleansed. There was no spread of diseases 
in any case where this rule was strictly observed. 

For one thing this proved that cleanliness of the 
hands is one of the greatest safeguards against com- 
municable disease. It is very probable that dirty 
hands cause more disease than any other agent. 

The man who milks with dirty hands, the cook who 
does not cleanse her hands thoroughly before touching 
the meal, may each be the cause of disease to those who 
partake of the food. Many babies get the germs of 
dysentery and diarrhea from the unclean hands of 
those who care for them. 

The germs which cause tuberculosis are found on the 
hands of most persons suffering with that disease who 
have not trained themselves to the utmost carefulness 
in keeping the hands clean. The germs of other com- 
municable diseases likewise pass from the mouth to the 
hands and are readily conveyed from one to another in 
numberless ways. Name as many such as 3A0U can. 

It is to be hoped that at your school you have soap 
fountains and running water to aid you in keeping 
clean hands. You will of course bring your own towel 
and nail brush and soap if none is supplied. Remem- 
ber, also, to avoid putting the fingers in the mouth. 


(2) "Put nothing into the mouth except jood^ You 
have already learned many reasons why this is so im- 
portant. It is an unsafe habit to use the mouth to 
hold coin, pins, pencils, tickets, and the dozen other 
similar things which people put there to retain just a 
moment. One runs the risk of getting some deadly 
disease each time it is done. The germs of every sort 
of communicable disease are easily carried on these 
articles that frequently pass from hand to hand. 

(3) Kee-p the teeth clean and free from decay. Teeth 
in good condition are a great safeguard against danger- 
ous disease. An institution in an Eastern city which 
cares for three hundred orphan children had each year, 
for a considerable period, some seventy or eighty cases 
of communicable disease. A dental clinic was estab- 
lished and thereafter for three years the rate was only 
three cases per year. 

(4) Keep entirely away from persons having a disease 
of communicable character. Run no risks. Children 
ought not purposely to expose themselves to disease. 
The idea many people have that it is the lot of every 
child, sooner or later, to have measles, scarlet fever, 
chicken pox, and whooping cough, and that it is well 
to "have it over with" is a mistaken one. Children 
should be most carefully protected from these diseases 
in their early years. Bad enough at any period of 
life, they are far more fatal to children under ten years 
of age. 

(5) Beware of any one who has a sore throat. Sore 



throat Is a common symptom of diphtheria, septic 
sore throat, scarlet fever, measles, and whooping cough. 
One may have sore throat and yet have none of these 
diseases, but precaution is always wisest. It is danger- 
ous to kiss a person with a sore throat, to drink from 
the same cup, to use the same napkin or spoon, take a 
bite from his apple or candy, or put his pencil in your 
mouth, or to handle his books or toys. 

(6) Court cleanliness in all things. If one would 
escape the typhoid germs, he must drink only water 
that is pure and clean. If there is any doubt about the 
water, boil it. Use none but clean milk. Certified 
milk is safest. Tuberculosis, typhoid fever, scarlet 
fever, measles, diphtheria, meningitis, dysentery, small- 
pox may each be conveyed by dirty milk. Lacking 
surety about the milk supply, it is wisest to boil or 
pasteurize it. Cleanse raw foods thoroughly before 
eating. Keep all foods away from dust and flies. 
Flies carry typhoid, tuberculosis, and other disease 
germs both inside their bodies and on their feet. 
Flies are dangerous and should be destroyed together 
with mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other household 

Keep the premises clean and the house and school- 
house free from dust. Dirt does not produce disease 
germs, but it harbors them. Pneumonia, tuberculosis, 
and influenza germs are commonly found in dust. 

(7) Breathe pure air. Get it out of doors just as much 
as you can. Work, study, play, and sleep in the open 


air. Make ample provision for fresh air indoors, by 
opening the windows. Breathe through the nose and 
not through the mouth. 

(8) Dwell in the light. SunHght destroys disease 
germs. It aids all the vital functions. Keep in the 
sunlight as much as possible, especially in the winter 

(9) Do everything you can to build up a strong body 
and vigorous health. This will aid you most of all to 
withstand the germs that cause disease. 

(10) In case the indications of illness do not disappear 
quickly, the parents and the family physician should be 

When it is known that a communicable disease 
exists, we can take pains to protect ourselves from it, 
General but the danger from the sick we never see is 
directions, often far greater. The baker who makes our 
bread or some person who handles it, if sick or 
dwelling with the sick, may, if careless, be the agent 
through which disease is brought to us. Many people 
are ignorant of the dangers from communicable dis- 
ease ; many others, although knowing, are not pains- 
taking. So it may happen that the welfare of every 
citizen is threatened each time a case of such a disease 
occurs in a town. Because they recognize that health 
is the right of every individual and the need of pro- 
tecting their citizens, many communities maintain a 
Health Department or a health officer to aid in con- 
trolling the common ways by which disease is spread. 


Such a measure stands for the welfare of every citizen 
and should have his support and cooperation. 

When a case of illness is suspected of being of a 
communicable character, it is the work of the health 
department or officer to investigate it. If it be found 
to be a case of dangerous disease, the sick person must 
be separated from those who are well, and kept apart 
until he will not communicate the germ of the disease 
to others. The length of this time depends upon the 
patient's condition and not upon any set rules ; for 
example : 

The only way to know whether a case of sore throat 
is really diphtheria is to find the diphtheria germ in a 
culture taken from the patient's throat. The only 
certain way to tell that the person has recovered so 
that he will not infect others is by an examination of 
specimens from his throat on two different days show- 
ing that there are no longer diphtheria germs there. 
The patient may feel well long before this, and still the 
germs may be present and may be communicated to 
other people. The well-informed health officer can 
best determine just when, in case of any catching dis- 
ease, the patient may be safely released from quaran- 
tine. It is part of his work to do this and to see that 
the patient's home and belongings are properly disin- 
fected after the illness. This is most important, as the 
germs which cause some communicable diseases keep 
alive for a long time, even years, in sqme instances. A 
schoolroom, railway coach, and other public places in 


which germs of contagious diseases have been scat- 
tered are unsafe until they have been disinfected. 

The law in most places demands that immediate 
notice of every case of communicable disease be 
given to the health officer. It is then his duty to place 
a card upon the dwelling warning the public. The 
people in a house so marked are placed under what is 
called quarantine. Until this quarantine is Ufted, they 
are not permitted to leave the house, or the place under 
quarantine. This is a safety measure in which every 
one should be willing to cooperate. 

Persons known to have been exposed to communi- 
cable disease ought, for the sake of other people's safety, 
to keep away from school, the playground, church, and all 
public places until all danger of havingthe disease is past. 

When a case of communicable disease occurs it is 
well for us to know that for the safety of both the sick 
one and those who care for him, the sick room should 
be cleared of all needless articles, clothing, bric-a-brac, 
and everything likely to harbor germs. Provision 
should be made for an abundance of fresh air. Pets 
should never be allowed to visit the sick room. Food 
and drink that are left over from the sick room should 
always be disinfected or burned — never put into the 
garbage can. Eating utensils, playthings, soiled cloth- 
ing, bedding, in fact everything that is used in the sick 
room, must he disinfected thoroughly before heingtaken from 
the room. In particular the discharge from the nose, 
mouth, eyes, ears, throat, and lungs should be received 


on old cloths or paper napkins and immediately burned, 
and all other discharges from the body should be at 
once disinfected. 

In both pneumonia and tuberculosis the sputa (all 
discharges from the lungs, throat, nose, and mouth) 
contain the germs by which these maladies are usually 
spread. It will be plain, then, why this dangerous 
matter should be destroyed. During an illness of 
penumonia or tuberculosis great care should be taken 
to prevent the soiling of bedding, clothing, and carpets 
with sputa. The patient should cough into a moistened 
cloth which should be burned before it becomes dry. 
This precaution should be continued even after the 
pneumonia patient is able to be about, just so long as 
anything is raised from lungs and throat. 

Tuberculosis is doubtless the most common of all 
these dread diseases, but fortunately it is one of the 
most easily cured in its early stages. Many people 
know very little about this disease and contract it 
because they are not aware of the ways in which it can 
be prevented. From a State Board of Health we get the 
following rules which every person will be wise to learn : 

The person infected with tuberculosis should protect 
himself, his family, his associates, and the public by 
not spitting in public places, and by promptly ^^^ ^ ^^ 
destroying all discharges. health in 

Flies carry sputum and its infection to t"^^^; 
food, to your hands, your face, clothes, the 
baby's bottle, from which the germs are taken into 


the mouth and thus gain access to the stomach and 

Spitting on the sidewalk, on the floor, on the wall, on 
the grass, in the gutter, or even into a cuspidor con- 
taining no disinfectant is a very dangerous practice for 
a consumptive to indulge in. 

The well person should defend himself by insisting 
that the tuberculous patient shall destroy all discharges. 

Well persons should set the example of restraint and 
themselves refrain from spitting promiscuously. 

A person may appear quite healthy, and yet be de- 
veloping tuberculosis without knowing it. 

Such a person, if he spit where he pleases, may be 
depositing infected sputum where it can endanger the 
health and lives of other persons. 

Do not sleep with a person who has tuberculosis, nor 
in the room occupied by a tuberculous person, until 
that room has been thoroughly disinfected. 

Any person is liable to contract tuberculosis, whether 
he is well or not. 

Sickly persons, or those having bad colds, influenza, 
bronchitis, pneumonia, or any general weakness are 
much more liable to contract tuberculosis than a per- 
fectly well or robust person. 

If you have a cough that hangs on, consult at once a 
reliable physician who has abihty to diagnose tuber- 

Prevention is possible ; it is cheaper and easier than 


We have seen how we are in danger of contagion from 
persons who are sick ; from articles they have used ; 
places they have been in, and careless people who may 
have cared for them or visited their sick room. There 
are also many persons who do not feel at all sick them- 
selves who have the germs of diphtheria and typhoid 
in their bodies and may convey them to others. These 
persons are termed carriers. One such who carries 
diphtheria germs going to a school may give the germs 
to every pupil in the room. Not long ago an epidemic 
of diphtheria broke out in a little town of six thousand 
people. Upon investigation as to the cause there were 
found four hundred individuals who were carriers of 
the disease none of whom felt ill or even suspected they 
had the germs. 

It is often remarked that epidemics of diphtheria, 
measles, whooping cough, and other communicable 
diseases more commonly occur at the beginning of the 
school year or directly after vacation than at any other 
time. Do you not think that if every school had a 
health officer or inspector to examine the pupils upon 
entrance, make tests for carriers, examine and care for 
the teeth, and give attention to other health measures, 
it would be an excellent and wise plan ? 



a, as in ale; a, as in sen'ate; a, as in care; S, as in Sm; a, as in arm; a, as 
in ask; a. as in fi'nal; e, as in eve; e, as in e-vent'; e, as in end; e, as in fern; 
e, as in re'c^nt; i, as in ice; i, as in i-de'a; i, as in Ul; o, as in old; 6, as in 
6-bey'; 6, as in 6rb; 6, as in odd; S, as in fise; u, as in u-nite'; u, as in Qp; 
fi, as in urn; y, as in pit'y; oo, as in food; do, as in foot; ou, as in out; oi, as 
in oil. 

abstinence (ab'sti-n^ns). The act, or practice, of denying one's self, par- 
ticularly as applied to drinking alcoholic beverages and to smoking. 

acetanilid (as'et-an'i-lid or lid). A medicinal compound of aniline with 
acetyl, used to relieve fever or pain, but dangerous when used with- 
out a physician's order. 

anaemia (a-ne'mi-a). An unhealthy condition of the blood, in which there 
is too little blood in the body or in which the blood itself is lacking in 
some essential quality. 

antipyrin (an'ti-pi'rin). A medicine containing an alkaloid, used to 
relieve fever. 

antiseptic (an'ti-sep'tic). Anything, usually a liquid, that prevents decay 
or that protects one from germs. 

aorta (a-5r'ta). The great artery which carries the blood from the heart 
to all parts of the body except to the lungs ; the main trunk of the 
arterial system. 

arterioles (ar-te'ri-olz). Very small arteries. 

arterio-sclerosis (ar-te'ri-6 skle-r5'sis). The hardening of the arteries, due 
usually to bad habits of living in respect to eating, drinking, and 


bacillus (ba-sil'us). A tiny vegetable organism often the cause of disease; 

often spoken of as bacteria. 
bile (bil). A yellow, or greenish, fluid manufactured by the liver and 

necessary for the digestion of fats, 
bismuth (biz'muth). A substance sometimes used in experiments of 

tracing the passage of food along the alimentary canal. 



caffeine (kaf-fen')- A white, bitter substance in coffee; a poison. 
calorie (kal'6-ri). A unit of heat. Just as in measuring a straight Hne, we 

begin with the inch, so in measuring heat, we begin with the calorie, 
calorimeter (kal'6-rim'e-ter). An apparatus for measuring the number 

of calories of heat in anything. 
cartilage (kar'ti-laj). An elastic tissue, through which the light passes 

but through which objects can not be seen; gristle. 
cellulose (seri-los). An indigestible substance found in most fruits and 

especially in vegetables, 
centenarian (sen'te-na'ri-an). A person one hundred years old or more, 
centigrade (sen'ti-grad). Consisting of one hundred degrees — used to 

describe a thermometer on which the freezing point of water is o° 

and the boiling point is ioo°. 
cerebrum (ser'e-brum). The large division of the brain. It controls the 

reason and the will, 
chronic (kron'ik). Continuing for a long time; lingering; habitual, 
circular muscles (ser'ku-lar mus"les). The muscles that go around an 

organ or an opening. 
cocaine (ko'ka-in). A substance used to deaden pain; a poison. 
coma (ko'ma). A state of unconsciousness from which it is difficult or 

impossible to arouse a person. 
convolutions (kon'vo-lu'shiinz). Irregular, wave-like foldings of an organ; 

as, the convolutions of the intestines and of the brain, 
corpulence (kor'pu-l^ns). Excessive amount of fat, fleshiness. 
cortex (kor'teks). An outer covering, as the cortex of the brain com- 
posed of the outer layers of nerve cells. 


dietary (di'et-a-ry). Rules of diet; that is, of the amount and kind of 

food to eat. 
dynamometer (dl'na-mom'e-ter or din'a). An apparatus for measuring 

force or power, used to test the power of the muscles. 

endurance (en-dur'ians). The quality of being able to keep up an exertion 

or to bear pain, for a considerable length of time, 
ergograph (er'go-graf). An instrument for registering the amount of 

work performed by a contracting muscle up to the point of fatigue, 
excrete (eks-kret'). To cast off from the body as useless. 
extensors (eks-ten'sorz). Muscles that serve to extend or straighten any 

part of the body, as an arm or a finger; — opposed to flexors, which 

bend or contract muscles. 



fatty degeneration (fat'ty de-jen'er-a'shun). A diseased condition, in which 

the presence of too much fat interferes with the working of the organs, 
fermentation (fer'men-ta'shun). The change in a substance to a bubbhng 

state, or state where the presence of gas causes the substance to be in 

motion. A change in a substance due to the action of bacteria. 

Usually gas is formed, and also alcohol in greater or less quantities. 
fibroid degeneration (fibroid di-jen'er-a'shun). A form of decline in 

which organs or tissues are changed into tissue made up of fibers. 
fissures (fish'urz). The furrows or depressions in the surface of the brain, 
flexors (fleks'orz). Muscles which bend (flex) any part; — opposed to 

frontal lobes (fron'tal lobz). The round projecting parts of the brain in 

front of the inside of the skull. 

glycogen (gli'ko-jen). A substance like starch; "animal starch." 


hemoglobin (hem'6-glo'bin or he'm6-gl5-bin). The coloring matter of 
the red blood corpuscles. 

incapacitated (in'ka-pas'i-tat-ed). Deprived of natural power ; disabled. 
infection (in-fek'shian). Disease caused by germs; also the giving of 

disease germs to a well person by a diseased one. 
insomnia (in-s6m'ni-a). Inability to sleep; wakefulness; sleeplessness. 

Jiu Jitsu (ju'jit's'). A Japanese system of training for physical contests 
like wrestling. 


kilogram (kil'o-gram). A measure of weight in the metric system, equal 
to about two and one fifth pounds in our system. 

longitudinal muscles (lon'ji-tu'di-n«l mus"les). Muscles that extend length- 
wise with the organ which they govern. 


massage (mas'saj ; F. ma'sazh')- A rubbing of the body, done especially 
as a hygienic or remedial measure. 


medulla oblongata (me-dul'la ob'lon-ga'ta). The back part of the brain 
connected with the spinal cord. 

metabolism (me-tab'5-liz'm). The process by which living tissues take 
up and change the material that the blood brings them for nourish- 
ment or by which they change their own substance into matter that 
can be thrown out of the body. 

micron (mik'ron or mi'kron). A measure of length in the metric system; 
about one twenty-five thousandth part of an inch in our system. 

morphine (mor'-fin or fen). A drug, opium, which deadens pain and puts 
a person to sleep, but which is dangerous. 


nicotine (nik'6-tin or -ten). An element found in tobacco. It is very 

nitrogen (ni'tro-jen). A chemical which may be in the form of gas in the 

air, or in the form of liquid. 

occipital lobes (ok-sip'i-tal lobz). The round projecting parts of the brain 

at the back of the inside of the skull. 
opium (6'pi-um). The juice of the poppy plant. The Chinese used to 

smoke it. 
opsonic index (6p-s6n'ik in'dex). A statement of the condition of one's 

blood in respect to its power to destroy a particular disease germ, as 

the tuberculosis germ. 


parasite (par'a-sit). A plant or animal that lives on another, drawing 
the juices or nourishment of the other and doing no independent work. 

parietal lobes (pa-ri'e-tal lobz). The round projecting parts of the brain 
at the sides of the skull. 

pelvis (pel'vis). That part of the body below the stomach, which con- 
tains the pelvic bones. 

pestilence (pes'ti-li?ns). The plague, or any terrible fatal disease that 
spreads easily, rapidly, and widely. 

phenacetin (fe-nas'e-tin). A substance used in medicine to relieve fever 
but dangerous if used without a physician's order. 

physique (fi-zek'). The physical build or structure of a person; physical 

plague (plag). An acute contagious fever, incurable and terrible in its 
attacks ; any disease that destroys many people in a short space of time. 

plethysmograph (pleth'is-mo-graf). An instrument for determining and 
registering the variations in the amount of blood in an organ or mem- 
ber of the body, as the arm. 


plumb line (plum lin). A straight line between two points, as between 
the forehead and the floor. 

proteid (pro'te-id). One of the elements present in greater or less degree 
in nearly all plants and to a large degree in animal tissues and organs. 

ptomaines (to'ma-inz or en). A class of substances that grow in dead 
matter; poisons. 

pulmonary circulation (piil'mo-na'ry ser'ku-la'shun). The system of cir- 
culation in the body that goes through the heart and the lungs. 

pulse (pijls). The beating of the heart or blood vessels, especially of the 
arteries at the wrist and in the temple. 

putrefaction (pQ'tre-fak'shiin). The act of rotting, of decaying. 

secrete (se-kret')- To extract from the blood and make into a new sub- 
stance, as the salivary glands secrete saliva. 

sedentary (sed'en-ta-ry). Accustomed to sit much or long without exer- 
cise, or requiring much or long sitting. 

sphygmomanometer (sfig'mo-ma-nom'e-ter). An instrument for meas- 
uring pressure of blood in an artery. 

sphygmograph (sfig'mo-graf). An instrument by which the pulse may be 
made to write a record of its own action. 

spirometer (spi-rom'e-ter). An instrument for measuring the vital 
capacity of the lungs ; that is, the volume of air which can be expelled 
from the chest after the deepest possible taking in of breath. 

sputum (spij'tum). Saliva; what is expectorated; spittle. 

sternum (ster'num). The breast-bone. 

symmetry (sim'me-try). Correct proportion or balance of the parts of 
the body. 


tannin (tan'nin). A harmful acid in tea. 

temporal lobes (tem'po-r^l lobz). The round projecting parts of the brain 

at both sides of the skull. 
theine (the'in or -en). A poison found in tea and coflFee. 
toxin (toks'in). A poison, referring often to the poisons developed within 

the body. 


vasomotor center (vas'6-mo'ter sen'ter). A nerve center concerned with 
the regulation of the distribution of the blood, by acting on the mus- 
cular coats of the blood vessels. 

vertebrae (ver'te-bre). (Plural of vertebra). The small bones that make 
up the backbone. 


Alcohol, effect of, on nerves and 
mind, 148-164; lessening cour- 
age, ambition, and working 
power, 148-151; affects judg- 
ment, 151-152; some conclusive 
experiments, 152-155 ; people 
who use alcohol not wanted in 
business, 155-156; effects of, on 
marksmanship, 156-159; loss of 
time through sickness, 159; the 
total abstainer versus the drinker, 

Arteries, use of, in circulation, 23- 
24; hardened arteries, 25. 

Attention, and interest, 136-139. 

Auto-intoxication, 188-189; chief 
causes of, 190-194. 

Body-filters for destroying poisons, 
183-201; the liver, a wonderful 
and mysterious organ, 185-186; 
the kidneys, 187; auto-intoxica- 
tion, 188-189; use of sour milk 
to kill harmful germs, 189; chief 
cause of self-poisoning, 190-194; 
things that encourage intestinal 
activity, 196 ; fasting not a good 
remedy, 198-199. 

Brain, chief organ of the body, 121- 
135; "centers" in the brain, 
123-125; seat of the mental 
faculties, 125; testing action 
and reaction, 126-128; forming 
habits, 128-129; influence of the 

mind on the muscles, 129-130; 
effects of nerve fatigue on the 
muscles, 130; effects of muscu- 
lar fatigue on the brain, 131- 
134; the mental faculties, 136- 
147; attention and interest, 
136-139; mental activity a safe- 
guard, 139-140; effect of think- 
ing on the brain, 140-141 ; good 
nerves and a sound brain depend 
upon good blood, 141-142; 
effects of emotions on the body, 
142-144; emotions that weaken 
the body and the mind, 144-146. 

Clinkers, in the body, 100-102. 
Cocaine, a poisonous drug, 178. 
Coffee, harmful effects of, 172. 
Cornaro, the story of his long life, 

Diamond, Captain, the story of his 

long life, 269-274. 
Diet, the ideal, 97-98- 
Digestion, time table of, in regard 

to various foods, 194. 
Dynamometer, testing muscles with, 


Efficiency, meaning of, 39-4°; 
health the ' greatest factor in, 
40-41 ; exercise for, 63-94; food 
and efficiency, 97-120. 

Emotions, effect of on the body. 




142-144; that weaken the body 
and the mind, 144-146. 

Ericsson, Captain John, an example 
of right Hving, 57. 

Excretion, organs of, 183-210. See 
Body filtersy Liver, Kidneys. 

Exercise, benefits of, 63-94; ruhng 
peoples always develop the body, 
63-65 ; Olympic games, 65-66 ; 
effects of exercise on the muscles, 
66-67; keeping the muscles 
strong and flexible, 67-68 ; 
effects of on the joints and liga- 
ments, 68-70 ; keeping the spine 
flexible, 70-71 ; general benefits 
of exercise, 71-73 ; exercise and 
a good appetite, 73 ; how muscle 
training benefits the nerves, 74- 
75 ; best forms of exercise, 80 ; 
estimating amount of work done 
in, 83 ; taking exercise in one's 
room, 85 ; best time to exercise, 
87-88 ; corrective exercises, 92- 

Food and efficiency, 97-120; the 
ideal diet, 97-98; the building 
material of the body, 98-100; 
clinkers in the body, 100-102; 
a peculiar trait of proteid, 102- 
103 ; amount of food needed, 
103-104; economy in nutrition, 
104; experiments in low-proteid 
diet, 105 ; relieving organs of 
unnecessary labor, 107; selec- 
tion of food, 107; composition 
of cereals, 108 ; composition of 
meats, 109; natural foods, iii; 
accidental discoveries regarding 
foods, 1 1 2-1 14; irritating the 

stomach, 114-116; need for un- 
cooked food, 116-117; so-called 
"brain foods," 117-118. 

Germ plagues, 218-250; minute 
forms of life, 218-220; work of 
microbes, 220; microbes a cause 
of disease, 221 ; germ of tuber- 
culosis, 223-249. 

Gladstone, William Ewart, as an 
example of right living, 266-269. 

Habits, 128-129. 

Handicaps in the race of life, 165- 
181; tobacco, 166-172; tea, 
172; coffee, 172; cocaine, 178; 
patent medicines, 179; head- 
ache remedies, 180; soothing 
sirups, 180. 

Headache remedies, danger of, 180. 

Heart, work of, 20-21; measuring 
work of, 21-22; recording blood 
pressure, 22; work of the arteries 
in circulation, 23-24; evil of too 
high blood pressure, 24-25 ; 
effect of hardened arteries, 25. 

Height, of man, 1-3 ; and exercise, 
3-4 ; good poise more important 
than stature, 5-6. 

Hookworm cause of shiftlessness, 

Kidneys, 187. 

Life, value of a, 45-62 ; one cause 
of shiftlessness, 45 ; economic 
value of health, 47-48; com- 
mercial value of a human life, 
48-49; minor ailments prevent 
perfect health, 49-5 1 ; the duty 



of those who can work, 51 ; neces- 
sity of increasing length of the 
period of work, 51-52; "ruling 
powers" and "servant classes" 
in the body, 52-54; brain work 
and muscular work, 54-55 ; keep- 
ing up vital resi<5tance, 55-57; 
Ericsson as an example of right 
living, 57-58; Wesley a great 
worker, 58-60. 

Liver, 185-186. 

Living, right, 251-276; what science 
has accomplished, 252-254; what 
remains to be done, 254-255; 
true measure of race vigor, 255 ; 
some examples of longevity, 257- 
276 ; Luigi Cornaro, a Venetian 
nobleman, 259-262 ; Leo Tol- 
stoy, a Russian count, 262-266; 
William Ewart Gladstone, 266- 
269; Captain Diamond, athlete 
at 114 years of age, 269. 

Measure, taking the measure of a 
man, 1-17; height of man, 1-3 ; 
exercise and height, 3-4; sym- 
metrical development, 4-5 ; good, 
poise more important than 
stature, 5-6 ; the beauty of the 
body, 6-8 ; weight of the body, 
8-12 ; the evil of too much flesh, 
12-13 > strength of man, 13 ; 
what one's strength should be, 

Mental faculties, 136-147. 
Metabolism, how to measure rate 

of, 38-39- 

Metchnikoff, Professor, 52. 

Muscles, testing muscles with dyna- 
mometer, 14; effects of exercise 

on, 66-67; keeping strong and 
flexible, 67-68 ; muscle training 
benefits the nerves, 74-75 ; train- 
ing muscles for health and sym- 
metry, 77-78; using work for 
muscle training, 78; best forms 
of exercise for, 80-83 ; estimat- 
ing the amount of work done in 
exercise, 83 ; taking exercise at 
home, 85-88 ; how fatigue affects 
the muscles, 88-90; exercise for 
symmetrical development, 90 ; 
corrective exercises, 92-94; in- 
fluence of mind on, 129-130; 
effects of nerve fatigue on the 
muscles, 130; effects of muscu- 
lar fatigue on the brain, 13 1-134. 

Nerves, deceiving the nerves, 148-. 

Olympic games, 65-66. 

Patent medicines, danger of, 179. 
Proteid, a peculiar trait of, 102-103. 

Sleep, 202-217; necessary for body 
renewal, 202 ; keeping in good 
repair, 202 ; sleep for body build- 
ing, 204; changes in circulation 
during sleep, 205-207; dullness 
due to tiredness, 207; things 
that prevent sleep, 208-211; 
bedlam in our cities, 211-212; 
preventing noise, 212; effects of 
drugs on sleep, 213-215. 

Soothing sirups, dangerous, 180. 

Sphygmograph, 21. 

Sphygmomanometer, taking blood 
pressure by, 22. 



Strength, of man, 13 ; what one's 
strength should be, 15-17. 

Tea, harmful effects of, 172. 
Tobacco, harmful effects of, 166- 

Tolstoy, Leo, as an example of right 

living, 262-266. 
Tuberculosis, germ of, 223-249; 

nature of, 225-227 ; extent of, 

227-230; how spread, 230-232; 

killing germs of, 232-236; 

means of preventing, 236-248. 

Vital machinery, 20-44; work of 
the heart, 20-21 ; measuring work 
of the heart, 21-22; recording 
blood pressure, 22 ; work of the 
arteries in circulation, 23-24; 
evil of too high blood pressure, 
24-25 ; effect of hardened 

arteries, 25 ; vital capacity, 26- 
28; vital resistance, 28-30; 
fighting power of the blood, 30- 
31; measuring the amount of 
food required, 31-34; energy 
expended in different kinds of 
work, 34-35; varying needs of 
different people, 35-37; the life 
functions, 37-38; how to meas- 
ure the rate of metabolism, 38- 
39; the meaning of human effi- 
ciency, 39-40; health the 
greatest factor in human effi- 
ciency, 40-41. 

Weight, of the body, 8-12; evil of 

too much flesh, 12-13. 
Wesley, John, as an example of 

right living, 58-60. 
Weston, Edward Payson, as an 

example of right living, 81-83. 

Printed in the United States of America. 


HE following pages contain advertisements of a 
few of the Macmillan books on kindred subjects 

The Health Series of Physiology and Hygiene 

By M. V. O'SHEA 

Professor of Education, University of Wisconsin ; Author of 
" Dynamic Factors in Education," etc., and 


Superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanitarium ; Author of " Man, the Masterpiece," etc. 

The Health Series of Physiology and Hygiene presents a complete 
course in health instruction for elementary schools. It is organized con- 
veniently in four books that may be used together advantageously and eflFec- 
tively in the series. Each book is, however, complete in itself, and may be 
used by itself in courses of instruction in physiology and hygiene. 

The aim of the series is to awaken in the young a strong and normal de- 
sire to live, and to let the body live, in such a manner as to preserve health, 
conserve the energies, and prepare for the things that are to be done. The 
treatment is based upon sound pedagogical principles. It appeals at every 
step to self-activity of the child, to his desire for approbation, and to his judg- 
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Health Habits. The purpose here is to establish the child in the physi- 
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child, "These things are desirable. Can you do them in this way?"' 

Health and Cleanliness. The purpose of this book is to interest children 
in social service in health ; to show the dependence of health and well being 
upon protection, and especially against infections through germs, and to teach 
children what to do for themselves and others in case of an emergency. 

The Body in Health. The human body is here presented as the most re- 
markable thing in nature, in the variety and delicacy of its action and in the 
marvelous adaptation of its parts and functions. It presents knowledge with 
sympathy and it leads to an appreciative understanding. 

Making the Most of Life. This book directs attention to the chief fac- 
tors in modern life which reduce the vitality and the health of people. It is a 
forceful and constructive treatment of health. 




Muscular Movement Penmanship 

By C. C. lister 

Director of Penmanship, Brooklra Training School for Teachers 

Elementary Book, 66 pp., $.i6 
Advanced Book, 94 pp., $ .20 Teacher's Manual (Preparing) 

The purpose of the series is to furnish a definite plan by which 
practical writing may be taught in public and private schools with the 
greatest possible economy of time. In the Manual are directions for 
the teaching and supervision of writing that inexperienced teachers may 
need in order to make the work interesting and productive of good 

The chief features of the treatment are correct posture, movement, 
and good form. Throughout the series, in connection with each lesson, 
an effort is made to establish the child in habits of correct posture. 

Correct positions of the body, the arms, hands, feet, pen-holder, 
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The lessons in this series have been so worked out that a complete 
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is provided. These movement drills have been selected with care and 
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and letter drills are uniform. 




The English Language 


President of Anderson College, Anderson, S.C., and 


Principal of Training Department and Critic Teacher in Winthrop College, 
Rock Hill, S.C. 

Book One — Language and Literature Cloth, i2mo, ill., xvi + 2-jo pp., 40 cents 
Book Two — English Grammar Cloth, i2nio, ill., x + 270 pp., jj cents 

In the preparation of the English Language Series, the authors 
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The series is thus made to contain material rich in content for educa- 
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The information lessons and lessons based upon nature work are 
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Book One, Language and Literature, introduces the child to the 
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Book Two, English Grammar and Composition, follows and cor- 
relates closely with the lessons presented in the first book of the series. 
It is attractive and modern in its arrangement and inductive in its 
method. The book lays emphasis upon the instruction of the child in 
composition and grammar. 




The Everychild's Series 

Edited by Dr. JAMES H. VAN SICKLE 

Each volume, cloth, i2mo, illustrated, 40 cents 

The Everychild's Series is a library of fiction and dramatics, 
science and information, literature and art for children. Its contents 
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The series is a splendid source of supplementary reading material. 
It consists of over a score of volumes. 






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